Facebook0TwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享JUNEAU, Alaska (AP) — During Republican Mike Dunleavy’s successful run for governor last year, he offered few specifics for his vision of limited government but was clear that Alaska residents should get a full payout from the state’s oil-wealth fund. “Nothing should be off the table,” he said. The dividend provides a financial boost more critical for residents with lower incomes and those in high-cost rural areas. Checks have ranged from about $331 a person in the program’s early years to $2,072 in 2015, the year before it was capped. He’s faced criticism for participating in what some see as friendly venues, including events hosted by the limited government group Americans for Prosperity-Alaska, which asked people to register in advance and reserved the right to kick out anyone who was disruptive. Some of the gatherings drew protesters; police alleged one woman yelled at the governor in Nome and resisted their commands, but the prosecutor there declined to pursue charges. Jan MacClarence said she and her husband, who are in their 70s, are moving from a state-owned elder-care facility in Anchorage after 3½ years and into an apartment to avoid the budget stress. State officials have proposed rate increases of between 40% and nearly 140% for Pioneer Home residents to reflect costs of care, though they have said no one would be evicted or barred entry based on their ability to pay. Dunleavy argues the state must live within its means. He says spending is the problem, not the dividend, and sees revenue that would come from new or increased taxes as a pathway to more spending. Dunleavy is seeking constitutional changes that include a spending cap, giving voters a say on tax or dividend changes approved by lawmakers and giving the Legislature a say on tax-related voter initiatives. Key senators have begun kicking around the idea of a change in the dividend calculation. Lawmakers in recent years blew through billions of dollars in savings as they struggled to address the deficit. With savings dwindling and disagreement over taxes and continued cuts, they began tapping permanent fund earnings, typically used to pay dividends and fortify the nest-egg fund, to help pay for government last year. This created tension, with the decades-old dividend, widely considered an entitlement, seen as competing against other programs for funding. “The governor’s looking at any kind of pool of money he can try and grab, and it’s all going into this dividend promise that he made,” Kelty said. “I don’t think that’s right.” Dunleavy has proposed sweeping cuts, including potentially selling a state museum; idling Alaska’s ferry fleet while the future of that service, critical to many coastal communities, is debated; slashing health and social service programs; shifting costs to local governments; and cutting the University of Alaska system budget by an amount nearly equivalent to the cost of running two of its three flagship campuses. Roger Stone, a Dunleavy supporter from Ketchikan, doesn’t agree with everything Dunleavy proposed but sees his budget as a wake-up call that something’s got to give. Alaska has no personal income or state sales tax. He hasn’t said if he would accept a smaller dividend, or how heavily he’ll wield his veto power. He said he’s willing to use “every tool available to make sure we have our fiscal house in order.” But now that he’s governor, residents are learning what it will take to pay a full dividend, and many don’t like their options. A new law that seeks to limit what can be taken from fund earnings calls for a withdrawal of $2.9 billion for the coming budget year for both dividends and government expenses. Paying a full dividend for 2019 alone would take $1.9 billion. That doesn’t include any back-payment. Some see this as a manufactured crisis that doesn’t consider potential new or increased taxes and too highly prizes the annual checks over education and other government services. Frank Kelty, the mayor of Unalaska, a community of about 4,300 along the far-flung Aleutian Islands that is home to one of the nation’s busiest fishing ports, likens Dunleavy’s quest to pay a full dividend to President Donald Trump’s push for a U.S.-Mexico border wall. “I think that they need to take a hard look at what’s really necessary in state government,” Stone said of lawmakers. Once that happens, he said he’s willing to have a lower dividend, seeing that as preferable to a sales or income tax. Dunleavy’s call for paying the full amount this year, around $3,000 each, plus what they missed out on the past three years, was a centerpiece of his campaign. The state wants to hire a consultant to recommend “reshaping” the system and reducing its costs. Dunleavy has expressed openness to keeping some runs going while that process plays out, but no boats are currently set to sail past Oct. 1. MacClarence said being on their own and using food delivery and personal care services as needed is better than worrying every year about what lawmakers might do. Former state Sen. Rick Halford unsuccessfully sued Walker for roughly halving the amount available for dividends in 2016 and agrees with Dunleavy’s effort to pay a full dividend. But he said it isn’t a full debate when options such as taxes on oil and other resources aren’t being considered. As lawmakers have held hearings around the state on Dunleavy’s budget proposals, the governor has begun traveling to make his case. The formula for calculating the amount residents receive from Alaska Permanent Fund earnings is set in state law, based on an average of the fund’s income over five years. Starting in 2016, former Gov. Bill Walker and the lawmakers capped the yearly dividend, at $1,022, $1,100 and $1,600. A full dividend this year would be roughly $2,900 to $3,100. Community meetings and some budget hearings held by lawmakers have drawn big crowds. Hundreds spoke against cuts to the ferry system, a thoroughfare for coastal communities not connected to the mainland road system. Lawmakers and Dunleavy’s predecessor kept the annual checks at $1,600 or less the past few years as they struggled to address a budget deficit that has persisted amid low to middling oil prices and is now estimated at $1.6 billion. Many residents of small southeast Alaska communities travel by ferry with their cars to the bigger city of Juneau to buy supplies at places like Costco, or fly there and take the ferry home. Walt Weller, the mayor of Pelican, a town of about 70 people 70 miles (113 kilometers) west of Juneau, called the ferry a lifeline. “When you’re out here at the end of everything — I mean no roads, float planes only — 100% weather-dependent, we’re pretty doggone dependent on that ferry,” Weller said. He acknowledges people choose to live there but said the ferries — even with limited runs — have helped make that possible. “To have people claim that they’re going to give everybody giant (dividend) checks and then rip our road out from underneath us is fairly upsetting,” he said.
• Mercedes-Benz EQV concept electrifies the humble van We’ll start with the most important part, the powertrain. The EQV is front-wheel drive, containing all its motive-force bits in the front end. Its electric motor puts out 201 horsepower, and it’s combined into a single unit with the transmission, cooling system and power electronics. Juice comes from a 100-kWh lithium-ion battery, which gives the EQV a range of about 249 miles and a top speed of 99 miles per hour. With fast charging, it can add about 62 miles of range in 15 minutes or so.Enlarge ImageThe best electric vehicles don’t look all that different from today’s cars, and the EQV fits that bill to a T. Andrew Hoyle/CNET From an aesthetics standpoint, the EQV looks very close to the Mercedes V-Class that debuted at the end of January. There are a few touches to let you know it’s electric, like a sleeker grille and headlight combination, as well as some unique alloy wheels with blue accents, but it’s largely the same on the outside as the V-Class. The EQV’s interior is just a bit fancier, with blue and rose-gold elements all over the place. The Nappa leather appointments are obviously more suited to the EQV as a passenger vehicle, but odds are that there will be a stripped-down commercial version that can take a little more abuse, too.While the production EQV will likely arrive within the next year or so, Mercedes-Benz has bigger plans beyond that. The automaker hopes to electrify its entire portfolio — that is to say, it will offer at least one electrified variant of all its models — by 2022. The future is electric, but it seems Mercedes-Benz doesn’t want to wait until the absolute last minute to hop on the bandwagon. 2020 Kia Telluride review: Kia’s new SUV has big style and bigger value Mar 8 • VW is still ‘100 percent’ investigating a pickup truck for the US 2020 BMW M340i review: A dash of M makes everything better Mar 7 • New Peugeot 208 debuts i-Cockpit with 3D HUD Combo dashboard 0 Mercedes-Benz on Tuesday unveiled the Concept EQV at the Geneva Motor Show. The concept is an all-electric van that’s slated to enter production in the near future. The actual production version will be introduced properly at the Frankfurt Auto Show this fall, but for now, the “concept” version gives us a pretty good idea of what to expect. Geneva Motor Show 2019 Mercedes-Benz See All More From Roadshow Mar 7 • The Ferrari F8 Tributo is the last of the nonhybrid V8s Geneva Motor Show 2019 Tags Now playing: Watch this: Mercedes-Benz 2020 Hyundai Palisade review: Posh enough to make Genesis jealous 52 Photos Apr 17 • The 2020 Jaguar XE gets its first major visual refresh Electric Cars Concept Cars Vans Future Cars Post a comment reading • Mercedes-Benz Concept EQV previews an attractive electric van 1:38 Mercedes-Benz Concept EQV looks prepped for production Share your voice
(Left) Clusters of investors detected in a statistically validated network. Each investor is represented by a node whose color indicates the investor’s category. The most common investor category is households (cyan). (Right) The same clusters with reduced node sizes to emphasize the links, whose colors indicate the type of co-occurrence. For example, magenta links indicate the buy-buy co-occurrence. Image credit: Michele Tumminello, et al. ©2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft More information: Michele Tumminello, et al. “Identification of clusters of investors from their real trading activity in a financial market.” New Journal of Physics 14 (2012) 013041. DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/14/1/013041 Copyright 2012 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Stock market network reveals investor clustering (2012, January 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-stock-network-reveals-investor-clustering.html Explore further Now in a new study, with access to a database of thousands of investors’ trading activity of Finnish stocks, researchers have developed a network that allows them to identify investor clustering, or groups of investors that trade in a similar way. Clustering, which can also be thought of as herding, may eventually lead to the identification of trading patterns and strategies that collectively determine stock price.The team of researchers, Michele Tumminello, Fabrizio Lillo, Jyrki Piilo, and Rosario N. Mantegna, working at Palermo University in Palermo, Italy; Carnegie Mellon in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in Pisa, Italy; the Santa Fe Institute in Santa Fe, New Mexico; and the University of Turku in Turun yliopisto, Finland, have published their study on identifying investor clustering in a recent issue of the New Journal of Physics.Statistically significant similaritiesThe researchers gathered their data from a database that records the daily trading activity for almost all major publicly traded Finnish companies. Under a special agreement with Euroclear Finland, which maintains the database, the researchers were able to access data from 1995 to 2008. The researchers focused on the trading activity of just one stock, Nokia, for a five-year period between 1998 and 2003 in all financial markets where the company is listed. During this time, 164,000 investors made more than 18 million transactions of Nokia. However, the researchers considered only those investors who traded Nokia stock on at least 20 days during the time period, reducing the number of investors to 11,000. These investors were responsible for 99.83% of the exchanged volume. Comparison of two statistically validated networks, with the same nodes but different links between them. The network on the left produced more links, and sometimes different link types, than the network on the right due to different levels of specificity. Image credit: Michele Tumminello, et al. ©2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Individual trading positively related to future returns Journal information: New Journal of Physics Using this data, the researchers then created a statistically validated bipartite network, a relatively new type of network. They began by building a bipartite system, which has two types of nodes: investors and trading days. The two node types can be connected by one of three link types: buy, sell, or both. For example, if investor 1 buys stock on day 1, then a buy link would connect those two nodes. Often there is no link between an investor and a trading day because the investor did not trade that day.In order to identify clusters of investors in this bipartite system, the researchers had to expand the system into a network of investors. Here, nodes only represent investors, and two investors can be connected by as many as nine different link types, since there are nine different combinations of two investors who each have three possible states. For example, one link type is when both investors buy on the same day, another is when both sell on the same day, another is when one buys and one sells, etc. Each link is weighted according to the number of days the two investors were described by the state characterizing that link. For example, when two investors are connected by a strongly weighted buy-buy link, it signifies that they both bought stock on the same days for many days.In order for the researchers to determine the similarity between two investors’ trading activities, they had to figure out just how strongly weighted a link has to be to indicate significant similarity. To do this, the researchers had to statistically validate each link against a suitable “null hypothesis,” which represents a default position, or statistical threshold where some similarity is expected. So when two investors’ trading activity is similar for more days than expected by the null hypothesis, the similarity rejects the null hypothesis and is statistically valid. There can be nine different types of these statistically valid similarities, or “co-occurrences,” as described above.Interpreting clustersWhen the researchers finished constructing this network (using two different statistical validation methods), the results showed that trading activity often occurs in clusters characterized by different types of co-occurrences. Both methods produced more than 300 clusters ranging in size from 2 investors to 500 investors in one method and 3,000 in the other. Within these clusters, investors traded in similar ways, with some clusters buying on the same days (buy-buy co-occurrence), some selling on the same days (sell-sell co-occurrence), and some doing both (combination buy-buy and sell-sell co-occurrence), etc. Interestingly, some clusters were dominated by investors belonging to specific categories. For example, household (individual) investors were over-expressed in a cluster characterized by buying on the same day, while financial and insurance corporations were over-expressed in a cluster characterized by selling on the same day.“I believe that the most interesting result is that in some clusters of investors we detect an over-representation of some types of investors – household, financial institution, etc. – belonging to it,” Mantegna told PhysOrg.com.The researchers also demonstrated that the statistically validated networks are not dependent on the length of the time period, and can be applied to shorter segments within the five-year period. They split this period into two segments: the bull period of 1998 to mid-2000 and the bear period of mid-2000 to 2003. Counterintuitively, both statistical methods identified a sell-sell co-occurrence in the bull period and a combination sell-sell and buy-buy co-occurrence in the bear period. This finding defies the intuitive expectation that the sell-sell co-occurrence should dominate the bear period more than the bull period.Applied to even shorter time periods, the more stringent of the two methods detected that trading activity changes in response to certain events. For example, trading activity increases after a stock splits and immediately after quarterly announcements. These observations can likely be attributed to the sensitivity of these statistically validated networks.“There are at least three main differences between our network and previous financial networks,” Mantegna said. “First of all, our network is the first one that has been proposed to describe the investment activity of single investors, including households, trading in a financial market. Second, our method is able to properly account for the heterogeneity of investors’ activity. In fact, differently from other approaches using correlation estimates among the inventory variation of single investors, our method works for single investors being active traders in a number of days ranging from 20 to 1,300, in other words a degree of heterogeneity of about two orders of magnitude in trading frequency. Finally our method is capable of detecting not only either correlation or anti-correlation between investors’ activity, but also mixed relationships between investors’ strategies, like for example a significant correlation of selling activity and, at the same time, a correlation of a day trading like buying and selling activity for the same pair of investors.”Overall, the results show that investors who are diverse in many ways still exhibit synchronized trading activity. In the future, the researchers plan to investigate the underlying causes of this synchronization, such as the use of similar strategies, influence from analysts, or communication among the investors themselves. The discoveries from such studies could lead to a better understanding of the dynamics of complex financial systems.“From our perspective, a key scientific question is whether an essential heterogeneity, or in other words an ecology of traders, is needed or not to observe an efficient price discovery process in financial markets,” Mantegna said. “In current economic theory, heterogeneity is summed up into a representative agent, but there is growing evidence that not all the heterogeneity can be reflected into the global action of a single rational agent.”Besides understanding markets on a large scale, this network could also have applications for investigating activity such as high-frequency trading with the potential to detect fraudulent patterns.“We have adapted this method to work at the level of a trade network of market members and/or single institutions trading at high frequency,” Mantegna said. “When high-frequency data are available, the method can identify regularities and patterns (not necessarily fraudulent behavior) in the high-frequency trading activity of market members and single investors. The method per se does not detect fraudulent trading activity but rather detects co-occurrences of trading activities in a robust statistical way. If there is a pattern of trading considered fraudulent by other means it might detect all the investors that have followed that pattern of trading irrespectively of their trading frequency (provided that it is not too low).” (PhysOrg.com) — The stock price of a company continuously changes, going up or down depending on the collective activity of a large number of investors. Although this process seems fairly straightforward, no one fully understands how this collective trading activity finds the “correct” price of a stock. Some theoretical models have been proposed to describe how different investment strategies affect price dynamics, but challenges such as investor confidentiality and complicated data mining make it difficult to gather empirical support for these models. Overall, the investors were extremely diverse in terms of their investment size, trading capabilities, etc. The researchers classified investors into six categories: households (individuals), non-financial corporations, financial and insurance corporations, governmental organizations, non-profits, and foreign organizations. The researchers also described each investor’s type of daily trading activity as one of three states: buying, selling, or both.
07Nov Bill seeks to increase statute of limitations for armed robbery A bill introduced by state Rep. Diana Farrington calls for increasing the statute of limitations from six to 10 years for someone to be charged for armed robbery.“Only anybody who has been the victim of an armed robbery knows the incredible threat they face, not knowing if they’ll just lose their wallet or their life as well,” said Farrington, of Utica. “This bill adds armed robbery to the list of crimes such as kidnapping, extortion, attempted murder, manslaughter and home invasion, which allows victims up to 10 years to file charges.”Farrington testified today before the House Law and Justice Committee, with Derek Miller of the Macomb County Prosecutors’ Office and Clinton Township Police Department Capt. Richard Maierle also speaking in support of her legislation.“Armed robbery is a serious offense. It places a victim in more danger than other non-violent crimes, and yet, current law imposes the same limitations when filing a case,” Farrington said. “The statute of limitations should reflect the real threat of injury or death associated with this offense. We need to give our law enforcement agencies more tools to bring these criminals to justice.”House Bill 5010 remains under consideration of the House committee. Categories: Diana Farrington News,News
YouTube channels with more than a million subscribers nearly doubled in the last year, while the number of creators earning five or six figures from the platform grew more than 40%.Susan WojcickiThese figures were revealed by YouTube CEO Susan Wojcicki in an open letter posted to the YouTube Creators blog, looking back on the past 12 months and setting out the video service’s plans for the year ahead.Wojcicki described 2018 as “unprecedented” and said that YouTube’s three priorities for the year ahead are: supporting creator and artist success; improving communication and engagement; and “living up to our responsibility”.In terms of creator support, YouTube said it has increased monetisation accuracy by 40% and is making it easier for creators to appeal when videos are deemed ineligible for monetisation – for example if the content is not considered advertiser friendly.“There’s still more work to do on both of these fronts and we’re committed to getting it right for everyone,” said Wojcicki.Last year the company expanded YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, expanding these from five to 29 countries. It also added other ways to help content creators diversify their revenues, including ‘super chat’, merchandise, ticketing and channel memberships – the latter of which can be deployed by YouTubers with 30,000 subscribers or more.Turning to communication and engagement, YouTube said it increased the number of responses it makes to content creators via social channels by 150% and made its response times 50% faster. It also said it held more than 480 events with over 18,000 creators last year – including ‘fanfests’, creator summits and workshops.“It’s the engagement between creators and viewers that truly sets YouTube apart from traditional media like TV,” said Wojcicki. “Our goal is to grow this in new ways. One addition last year was the Premieres feature that allows creators to generate a shared experience with fans around new videos… I’m sure we’ll see even more of these moments in 2019.”On the responsibility front, YouTube said it made a lot of improvements in 2018 but recognises “there’s still much more to do,” referring to issues like removing the content that violates its community guidelines and supporting journalism and education on the platform.Elsewhere, Wojcicki said that YouTube will “do better to tell our story in 2019” after its 2018 Rewind video – supposedly a recap of the videos, people, music and moments that defined 2018 – became the most disliked video on the internet with 15 million dislikes to date.She also thanked the YouTube community for helping to bring attention to the “unintended consequences” of Article 13. “The debate around Article 13 remains ongoing,” she said. “This could be decided in the next few weeks, so please keep speaking out on this critical issue for all YouTube creators.”To read Susan Wojcicki’s full letter to YouTube creators, click here.
The IBC 2009 conference features a number of sessions that touch on IPTV – from the need for standardisation to the business case for distribution to multiple devices.This year’s IBC conference will include a number of sessions that touch on IPTV directly, or focus on areas closely tangential to it, such as online TV and the distribution of video to multiple devices.To start with, this year’s IBC keynote address will be delivered by Erik Huggers, director of future media and technology at the BBC, a public broadcaster that has been at the forefront of delivering on-demand TV over the internet with the BBC iPlayer, and is now attempting to push the use of broadband to deliver on-demand services to the TV via the proposed Canvas platform.Specifically IPTV-focused sessions at this year’s conference include two sessions on standards (Is standardisation the key for IPTV? The questions and Is standardisation the key for IPTV? The answers) on Thursday September 10, at 12.15-13.15 and 14.15-15.15 respectively. Chaired by William Cooper of Informitv, the former includes contributions from Mitchell Berman, currently CEO and co-founder of Zillion TV, Monika Gadhammar, chair of the Open IPTV Forum marketing group, and Peter MacAvock, programme manager at the EBU. Gadhammar will go on to chair the second session. Speakers include Paul Berriman, chief technology officer of PCCW in Hong Kong, Yun Chao, chairman of the Open IPTV Forum, Klaus Illgner, managing director of the Institut Für Rundfunktechnik, the EBU’s MacAvock, Paul Szucs, the Open IPTV Forum Solution working group chair, and Miguel Alvarez, head of strategic planning and evolving IPTV technology for Telefónica.Friday September 11 sees a session on The newest developments in IPTV from 09.00-10.30. Chaired by Dietrich Westerkamp, director of standards coordination at Thomson in Germany, the session will comprise an eclectic mix of presentations that address the latest applications and other new developments in IPTV.Over-the-top delivery of online TV is seen as an important topic in its own right, and the place within that of user-generated content is the subject of much debate. IBC will include a session on Harnessing UGC from 15.30-17.00 chaired by journalist Gary Smith with contributions from Gilles Babinet, CEO of Eyeka in France, Hugh Garry, senior interactive producer for creative projects, BBC Audio & Music, and Martin Rogard, content director of user-generated video portal DailyMotion.MPEG IF masterclassVarious IPTV issues will be discussed in two MPEG Industry Forum masterclass streams on September 14, produced with the University of St Petersburg. Co-chaired by Sebastian Moeritz, president of the MPEG IF and David Price, vice-president of marketing at Harmonic, the sessions will cover topics including the evolution of digital media standards, success factors for hybrid services and the repurposing of content for viewing on multiple devices. The first session, from 13.30-14.55, will feature Kevin Baughan, director of technical strategy at Virgin Media, Dieter Engel, product development media services at Deutsche Telekom, Manuel Gutierrez, CEO and president of TDVision Systems, Matthew Huntingdon of Open TV and Jeff McSchooler, vice-president of engineering at EchoStar. The second session, from 15.15-17.30, will feature Ross Biggam, director general of the Association of Commercial Television in Europe, Stuart Collingwood, vice-president EMEA of Sling Media, Konstantin Glasman, head of the video systems department at St Petersburg State University of Film and Television, Casey Harwood, senior vice-president, Turner Europe, Mark Krivosheev, chief scientist at the State Radio Research and Developmenet Institute of Russia, Kaliu Kukk, deputy general director of Russian group Telecom, Robert Luff, executive vice-president and chief engineering officer of Nielsen, Alexander Umbitaliev, director of Russia’s Television Research Institute and Robin Wilson, vice-president of business development at Nagravision in the US.
Milya Timergaleyeva, VP, market strategy, Oregan Networks talks about the challenges facing pay TV operators in delivering advanced services.What are the main challenges facing pay TV service providers as they attempt to upgrade their subscriber bases to receive advanced connected or hybrid TV services?The biggest common challenge faced by MSOs is meeting the growing demand for bandwidth, as content consumption preferences shift toward non-linear models. Intensified by the increasing appetite for Full HD and 4K content, the ‘bandwidth bottleneck’ has the potential to stress both managed and Over the Top Services to a level where customer experience can be adversely impacted.DRM fragmentation also continues to raise challenges for operators that deploy services across multiple devices and networks, and this is an area where goalposts are constantly changing, in terms of new security requirements from studios on UHD content, as well as ecosystem changes such as those recently made by Google to the Chrome browser.As a platform and services vendor, Oregan employs a combination of well-established technology building blocks and innovation components that tackle these issues. During IBC this year, Oregan will showcase recent integration with the V-Nova Perseus compression technology which holds a promise of significantly reducing the bandwidth requirements, thus making premium content accessible at lower OPEX levels. Core to Oregan’s bandwidth solutions strategy is close alignment and pre-integration with leading CDN and DVR vendors, such as Alcatel Lucent.Thirdly, the high velocity of the evolution of standards and emerging connectivity use cases pose operational challenges for operators who wish to stay relevant and competitive. On the one hand, the in-sourcing platform management strategies have proven effective for larger operators, on the other hand, the need to continuously explore, implement and trial new products in an Agile manner, have created an elevated demand for highly skilled engineering teams and product evolution methodologies that can be ‘plugged’ into a project rapidly and deliver to a high standard.How useful is cloud technology in helping deliver advanced TV services to pay TV operators’ subscribers and which applications are likely to be prioritized by operators?The trend to virtualize services that were once provided exclusively within the operator’s own managed headend is well underway. During the last 12 months Oregan has worked on deployment projects where many aspects of the traditional headend have been moved out into the cloud, allowing operators to reduce complexity and costs associated with onsite hosting.We are involved in projects today with tier-1 telecoms operators, where key video delivery platform components such as the CMS, Network PVR, DRM Key Server, TR-069 ACS Server and Upgrade Management Server are all provided as managed services hosted in the Cloud.Indeed, we see traditional cable and satellite operators deploying on-demand VOD services in some markets, where the Service Delivery Platforms I entirely outsourced and hosted in the cloud. This enables rapid time to market as well as immediate economies of scale, by utilizing pre-established cloud encoding and CDN platforms for OTT delivery to hybrid STBs and other OTT devices.Oregan’s video client technology has been developed from the outset to bring together the worlds of traditional broadcast, with IPTV and OTT technologies. A legacy or new generation STB running Oregan’s middleware can mix-and-match content from broadcast, IPTV and OTT sources, whilst providing a seamless and unified user experience to the consumer. The latest iterations of Oregan’s Secure Media Player solution, brings this consistency to multi-screen devices and OTT platforms, as well as the more established traditional CPE.What are the main challenges facing pay TV service providers as they attempt to upgrade their subscriber bases to receive advanced connected or hybrid TV services?The first and foremost decision faced by an operator is the approach to the existing devices. The reality is that the initial investment that was made deploying the original CPE is frequently making it difficult to commercially justify a complete replacement. Oregan’s legacy Pay TV migration methodology encapsulates the key product evolution process that allows the operator to synchronize, wherever possible, the capabilities and features across legacy and new generation devices.Oregan’s project experience with BT and its legacy Mediaroom STBs enables us to offer a field-proven solution to operators where the in-field upgrade process is flawless, with the entire fleet of devices upgraded remotely, courtesy of a well designed and implemented remote upgrade methodology. The crucial goal and a measure of success of any such upgrade project is elimination of any need for ‘truck rolls’. As part of the initial technical and financial analysis, Oregan carries out a thorough impartial feasibility assessment, which will determine the optimal product evolution path, feature sets, content security implications, timescales and any trade-offs related to the legacy STB’s intrinsic capabilities.What are the principal technology choices facing operators as they seek to build next-generation TV platforms and what are the key advantages and disadvantages of each?As technology sourcing becomes increasingly modular, with emphasis on upgradability and future-proofness, the component choices are becoming less restrictive. In this new scenario, which is made possible by the general move towards open architectures and community-sourced components, the choices tend to be related to the operating system utilized inside the CPE, the degree of association and prominence of competing OTT services offered side-by-side with the core content offering and, thirdly, the content protection technologies.A continued exploitation of multicast delivery infrastructure for live events, especially sporting events is an option that many operators are having to determine their approach to.And lastly, offering support for Common Encryption standards across devices, which enables operators to simplify the head-end infrastructure of a multi-DRM deployment is a transition that many operators consider as a matter of natural platform evolution.Oregan Networks provides market-leading technology expertise in delivery of Digital TV over broadcast and IP networks, with emphasis on ensuring content security, quality of service for consumers and mitigating project risk. To schedule a discussion with Oregan at IBC, email firstname.lastname@example.org.