20 December 2012 South African Airways (SAA) and US Airways have signed a bilateral code share agreement that will provide the airlines with expanded access to destinations in both countries. “Through the codeshare agreement with US Airways, South African Airways’ valued clientele will gain new travel choices to markets across the United States via US Airways’ extensive network and hubs in Philadelphia, Charlotte and Phoenix, providing for seamless travel and status recognition through the respective frequent flyer programs,” SAA’s commercial acting general manager, Manoj Papa, said in a statement. “We are looking forward to introducing US Airways customers to our award-winning service, and to working closely with US Airways as our partnership will improve the connections between our respective networks.” The new partnership will offer the convenience of a single-ticket purchase, as well as the opportunity for SAA customers to earn and redeem Voyager miles. “US Airways’ new code share agreement with its first African code share partner creates a seamless travel experience for our customers travelling to various destinations on the African continent,” said US Airways marketing and planning senior vice president, Andrew Nocella. Pending approval from the Senegalese authorities, the code share agreement will also offer US Airways passengers access to Dakar in Senegal via SAA’s Johannesburg- Washington service. “US Airways values our current relationship with South African Airways as a Star Alliance partner and now as a code share partner, we look forward to strengthening this partnership,” Nocella said. US Airways customers will have access to SAA’s hub in Johannesburg, as well as connections to Cape Town, East London and Port Elizabeth. The agreement took effect on 19 December. SAinfo reporter
The final investigation report of the Directorate General of Civil Aviation on a bird hit suffered by a Delhi-Mumbai GoAir flight on June 21, 2017, has revealed that the pilots turned off the wrong engine and flew the plane on the engine that had ingested the bird. The report, made public on Tuesday, stated that after about three minutes the crew realised the mistake and tried to restart the other engine mid-air. They then declared an emergency and returned to Delhi, managing to land on a single engine on the second attempt. There were 156 passengers on board at the time of the incident. “The incident was caused by incorrect identification of engine affected with high vibration followed by non-adherence to recommended procedures, lack of situational awareness, poor Cockpit Resource Management and poor handling of aircraft during emergency subsequent to bird strike,” the report prepared by the office of Director of Air Safety (Western Region) said. Mid-air scareAccording to the findings, during take-off roll at around 115 knots, the aircraft — an A320 — encountered a bird strike on engine number 2. “Both crew noticed abnormal sound and vibrations but the pilot in command decided to continue the take-off probably wanting to investigate the problem after getting airborne. After the take-off, the situation was incorrectly assessed and engine number 1 (unaffected engine) was shut down. The aircraft was climbing with the single engine — engine 2 (affected engine), for over three minutes,” the report said. It pinned the blame of the “incorrect assessment” on the First Officer. As the aircraft stopped climbing at around 3,330 feet altitude, the crew realised their mistake and attempted to start engine number 1 but encountered start valve fault. The investigation also revealed that another pilot flying as Staff On Duty entered the cockpit after pressing the cockpit buzzer several times. The pilot in command submitted that he allowed the SOD inside the cockpit because the buzzer was distracting. “The SOD was heard asking information on the problem to cockpit crew while they were performing their duties in-flight and after landing as well,” the report said. As per the pilot in command, there was no information by Air Traffic Control about bird activity but the Air Traffic Information Services reported bird activity in its broadcast. The report also mentioned that after the incident, while taxiing to the allocated stand for parking, the crew took a wrong turn and parked the aircraft in an incorrect orientation.
Germany No Germany line-up changes needed despite Mexico defeat, says Neuer Josh Challies 20:01 6/19/18 FacebookTwitterRedditcopy Comments(0) Getty Images Germany World Cup Germany v Sweden Sweden The world champions were beaten by Mexico in their tournament opener, but the goalkeeper does not expect Joachim Low to ring the changes Manuel Neuer does not believe Germany need to change their starting line-up in response to their 1-0 defeat to Mexico on Sunday.Hirving Lozano’s first-half goal condemned Germany to their first opening defeat at a World Cup since 1982, raising the pressure on the defending champions ahead of clashes against Sweden and South Korea.The last two world champions, Italy and Spain, have both exited the World Cup at the group stages in the defence of their crowns and defeat for Joachim Low’s side against Sweden on Saturday could bring a premature end to their campaign in Russia. Article continues below Editors’ Picks Out of his depth! Emery on borrowed time after another abysmal Arsenal display Diving, tactical fouls & the emerging war of words between Guardiola & Klopp Sorry, Cristiano! Pjanic is Juventus’ most important player right now Arsenal would be selling their soul with Mourinho move However, Neuer is confident the squad will respond positively to the defeat against Mexico and, despite Germany’s depth, feels that changes to the line-up are not necessary.”I don’t think we need to take out one or two of the players to bring in new ones,” the captain told reporters on Tuesday.”We’re not thinking about changes in the squad or in the team but the quality is there throughout. For some of the players it’s the first tournament but there are also very experienced players.Last time we lost our opening #WorldCup game in 1982, we reached the final Who’s to say we can’t do it again?! #DieMannschaft #ZSMMN pic.twitter.com/5GfLF3kTpg— Germany (@DFB_Team_EN) June 18, 2018″Everyone is raring to go again, in Monday on training it was clear the players were fired up. They were battling and of course battling for places, everybody wants to be involved in the games.”Everyone is desperate to play. We are not scared of giving our own opinion to each other within the squad as to who we think should play.”Germany, like the other nations at the World Cup, are also adjusting to the introduction of VAR and Neuer admits it has had an impact on the squad.”We have a new situation with VAR and those things need to be discussed too. You have to wait to see how the referee decides things and there will be a bit of a break after that,” the 77-cap goalkeeper added.”The decisions are difficult to make and you can’t protest. Only the referee can decide if there’s an offside or not, we have no say in it.”Germany fly to Sochi on Tuesday ahead of the clash against Sweden and Jonas Hector is available again after missing the Mexico defeat with the flu.
TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Henrik Larsson linked with Southend jobby Paul Vegasa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveFormer Manchester United striker Henrik Larsson is being linked with a return to England.The Daily Mail says he has emerged as a target for Southend United.The League One side want to bring in the Swedish icon to replace Kevin Bond.The Shrimps side have been without a manager for two weeks.They remain winless this season in the league and lost 4-3 at Shrewsbury last night.They’ve lost seven and drawn one of their eight games so far this campaign.Larsson quit as Helsingborgs boss last month over the alleged level of “verbal insults” he received.
TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Chelsea attacker Willian wanted by Juventusby Paul Vegasa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveChelsea attacker Willian is wanted by Juventus.The Telegraph say the Turin club intends to move for the Brazilian next summer, when his contract with the Londoners expires.Willian’s agreement with Chelsea expires in the summer of 2020 – and so far negotiations for its extension have not been successful .The 31-year-old striker moved to Chelsea in 2013 from Anzhi. During his time with Chelsea, Willian has played 203 matches in the Premier League and scored 28 goals.
Kolkata: In a unique move some cartoonists in the city have come up with graffitis on the walls urging people to conduct peaceful elections.The initiative has been undertaken at a time when the political parties have occupied over most of the walls in the city to paint graffiti of their parties along with the symbol. The cartoonists some of whom are doctors, engineers and teachers approached the Sovabazar Burtola Durgotsav Committee and requested the authorities to provide a wall in Sovabazar area where they can paint cartoons to create awareness in people. Also Read – Bengal family worships Muslim girl as Goddess Durga in Kumari PujaA spokesman for the Durgotsav Committee said: ” Initially we got a shock as it was difficult to get walls at the time of general elections. However, we managed to finds some walls where the cartoonists came up with interesting graffiti on the elections. A spokesman for the cartoonists said: “Through the cartoons we have urged the people to vote peacefully. Election is a celebration in which people take part and exercise their franchise. Though the cartoons we have tried to make people aware of their Constitutional rights. We have not come up with any cartoon which will hurt the sentiment of any people or political Also Read – Bengal civic volunteer dies in road mishap on national highwayparty. As humour is a part of painting cartoons, there is an element of humour in our paintings.” In 1970s when Left Front came to power many cartoons had come up with paintings on the walls on key political issues like the Emergency. Along with the cartoons short rhymes were also written to promote the message in the paintings. But over the years, political cartoons have started disappearing. In 2019, the biggest problem faced by the political parties irrespective of colour is they are unable to get good wall graffiti artists. Most of the wall graffiti artists, who were whole timers in case of Left parties, have become old and young artists are a few in number. A senior Forward Bloc leader said: “The party had failed to get graffiti artists who could paint proper lions, which is the symbol of the party.”
Colombo: Sri Lanka’s Catholic churches on Thursday suspended all public services until the security situation improves as the head of the church urged politicians to leave aside differences to rebuild the country struck by the Easter Sunday bombings that killed nearly 360 people. Cardinal Malcolm Ranjith, the head of the local Catholic church, said that Easter Sunday’s attacks were coordinated by an organised group with powerful nations behind them and also noted that these attackers had no religion. Also Read – Saudi Crown Prince ‘snubbed’ Pak PM, recalled jet from USAll Catholic churches were asked to stop public mass until the security situation improves, Cardinal Ranjith’s office quoted him as saying. “There will be no public mass said until further notice,” an official said. He urged the government to leave aside all political differences and work together at this time to rebuild the country again. Sri Lankan media and some ministers have criticised the rift between President Maithripala Sirisena and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe after it emerged that authorities had prior intelligence from India and the US about the possible attacks by the National Tawheed Jamath (NTJ) jihadist group.
9Felix Hernandez52.4251 The Doc was the greatest pitcher of this millenniumPitcher wins above replacement since 2000 Sources: The Baseball Gauge, Baseball-Reference.com 8Cole Hamels54.0160 5Roger Clemens57Curt Schilling26James Shields18 3Jack McDowell61Randy Johnson32Felix Hernandez18 4Clayton Kershaw59.4253 RKPITCHERCGPITCHERCGPITCHERCG 1Roy Halladay61.7652 5Mark Buehrle58.5330 RANKPLAYERWARCOMPLETE GAMESCY YOUNG AWARDS Yesterday’s news that the great pitcher Roy Halladay had died in a plane crash sent baseball’s fraternity of players and coaches into a state of deep mourning. Around the league, tributes to Halladay’s technical skill and work ethic poured in. As our former colleague Ben Lindbergh wrote at The Ringer, Halladay was the consummate pitcher’s pitcher — the guy other pitchers always wanted to be.But on a personal level, the reports hit me especially hard — I grew up a fan of the Toronto Blue Jays, the team for whom Halladay first made his name as an ace. I was too young to experience the back-to-back World Series titles of 1992 and 1993, so my earliest memories came of the Blue Jays teams that stunk it up in the first decade of this millennium. Halladay was the one bright spot on an otherwise mediocre Toronto squad, so it was fitting that late Blue Jays game-caller Tom Cheek gave him the nickname “Doc” — a reference, of course, to Doc Holliday. But Halladay truly was a doctor on the mound — he healed so many of his team’s ills whenever he got the nod as that day’s starter.1As Jayson Stark pointed out, in games that Halladay started between 2002 and 2011 (his prime), his team went 195-108. When someone else started, his teams went 646-670.In his 12 seasons with Toronto, Doc pitched more than 2,000 innings and won 148 games, plus received the AL Cy Young award in 2003. He pitched 10 innings in a single game not once, but twice. Alongside Dave Stieb, Halladay is widely considered the greatest pitcher in Blue Jays history. When he was traded to the Phillies in 2009, my fellow Blue Jays fans were understandably upset, but they also understood. In his four seasons in Philadelphia, Doc’s stature grew to a whole new level. In typical fashion, he wasted no time, throwing a no-hitter in his postseason debut (just months after he pitched just the second perfect game in Phillies history). On the way, Doc won an NL Cy Young award — he’s one of just six pitchers in MLB history to win the award in both leagues.Because he spent years on a scuffling Toronto team, Doc’s greatness often gets overlooked. But it shouldn’t be. Based on total pitching wins above replacement since 2000, nobody this millennium has surpassed him yet, even though he hasn’t pitched in four years. 2Randy Johnson65Livan Hernandez36Adam Wainwright19 4Kevin Brown58CC Sabathia28Roy Halladay18 10Johan Santana51.4152 6Curt Schilling57Mark Mulder25Johnny Cueto17 8Chuck Finley46Javier Vazquez23Cliff Lee16 6Justin Verlander56.6231 1Greg Maddux75Roy Halladay47Clayton Kershaw25 10Doug Drabek41Sidney Ponson23Ervin Santana16 Halladay was a bridge between pitching erasMost complete games by decade in MLB, 1990s, 2000s and 2010s 7Tim Hudson54.8250 After this period of mourning for Halladay, writers and analysts will inevitably turn their attention to his Hall of Fame chances. And according to the yardsticks that we statheads typically look at, Halladay might seem like a borderline case. Because he had fewer dominant years than Hall of Fame voters like to see — he had injury problems early in his career and then retired relatively young — Halladay’s résumé is slightly below the HOF average for starting pitchers.2Based on JAWS, a WAR-based measure that tries to evaluate a player relative to his peers at the same position by balancing career and peak value. And although he meets the Hall’s criteria on other measures such as Bill James’s Black Ink Test (which tracks how often a player leads the league in important statistical categories), he falls short on some of the big statistical benchmarks that typically mark a HOF career.However, Halladay’s accomplishments are being sold short by these kinds of evaluations. His career stretched across two major eras of pitching, from a time when starters were often asked to finish games (no matter how many pitches it took) to the modern game, where bullpens are taking over for starters earlier and earlier. Halladay helped build a bridge between those two styles of starting pitching — as mentioned above, he could (and often did) go the distance and then some, recording complete-game totals that would have been commonplace in the 1980s and ’90s, but that stood out compared with his peers in the 2000s and even the 2010s, a decade in which he only pitched three full seasons. 1990s2000s2010s 2CC Sabathia61.5381 3Zack Greinke60.7161 9John Smoltz42Bartolo Colon23David Price16 7Scott Erickson47Mark Buehrle24Justin Verlander17 Source: FanGraphs Yet he was also a thoroughly modern pitcher, dominating with strikeouts and pinpoint control, a technician in addition to a workhorse. Since 2000, his fielding-independent pitching (relative to the league) is right up there with today’s aces such as Clayton Kershaw, Chris Sale and Corey Kluber. Since many of the metrics most commonly used to judge Hall of Fame standards were built with pitchers of a different era in mind, the metrics might need to be adjusted to better reflect what’s valued in today’s best hurlers. And Halladay might serve as a great test case, since he (more than maybe anyone else) helped the game transition between those eras of pitching.Whether Doc makes it to the Hall of Fame is irrelevant right now, though. What matters right now is that every time Halladay took to the mound, people were watching. Regardless of whether you were a pitcher or a hitter growing up, you wanted to be like Doc.— Neil Paine contributed research.CORRECTION (Nov. 8, 2017, 11:30 a.m.): A previous version of the first table in this article incorrectly showed Tim Hudson as having 26 complete games since 2000. He had 25.
Anderson Packers–19491562 ELOEQUIVALENT RECORDTEAM DESCRIPTION Baltimore Bullets–19471419 Fort Wayne PistonsDetroit Pistons19481495 120015-67Historically awful 150041-41Average Sheboygan Red Skins–19491405 There are just a few NBA-specific parameters to set, which we’ll describe below.The K-factorElo’s K-factor determines how quickly the rating reacts to new game results. It should be set so as to efficiently account for new data but not overreact to it. (In a more technical sense, the goal is to minimize autocorrelation.) If K is set too high, the ratings will jump around too much; if it’s set too low, Elo will take too long to recognize important changes in team quality.We found the optimal K for the NBA to be 20. This is higher than we expected; it’s in the same range as the K used for NFL and international soccer Elo ratings even though the NBA plays far more games than those sports. It’s much higher than the optimal K for baseball. It implies that you ought to give relatively high weight to an NBA team’s recent performance.One way to interpret this is that NBA data is subject to relatively little randomness. This makes it different from sports like baseball and hockey, whose game-by-game results are pretty noisy; in those sports, your default assumption should be that a winning or losing streak is mostly luck. That isn’t so true for basketball. Streaks may reflect true, if perhaps temporary, changes in team quality. When the Atlanta Hawks went on a 19-game winning streak this season, for instance, they were undoubtedly getting a little lucky, but they were probably tougher to beat than at other points in the season.There are still some cases in which Elo seems too slow to catch up to reality, like when Michael Jordan left the Bulls or LeBron James left the Cavs. But remember: Elo is only looking at game scores and not the composition of the roster. If that’s all the information you have, setting Elo to react more quickly to these cases would make it overreact to others. The Oklahoma City Thunder’s Elo rating never dipped below 1508 this year despite its 3-12 start, for instance, and that proved to be prudent since the team went 42-25 the rest of the way and ended the year with an Elo rating of 1583.Home-Court AdvantageHome-court advantage is set as equivalent to 100 Elo rating points. One hundred Elo points is equivalent to about 3.5 NBA points,1As for our NFL Elo ratings, it’s possible to translate NBA Elo ratings into point spreads. Here’s the formula: Take the difference of the two teams’ Elo ratings, add 100 points for the home team and then divide by 28. That gives you a projected margin of victory for the game. For instance, in Game 1 of the 2013-14 NBA Finals, the San Antonio Spurs had a 92-point Elo advantage over the Miami Heat, as well as home court, for an overall advantage of 192 Elo points. Dividing that by 28 would make San Antonio roughly 7-point favorites in the game. so that’s like saying the home team would be favored by 3 or 4 points if the teams were otherwise evenly matched.In practice, the magnitude of home-court advantage has waxed and waned over the NBA’s history. Home teams won by an average of 5.8 points in the 1987-88 regular season, for instance, but by just 2.4 points in the past season. And some teams (especially those like Denver and Utah that play at high altitudes) have historically had slightly larger home-court advantages.Still, the spirit of the Elo system is to keep things simple. We experimented with a dynamic home-court advantage rating that changes over time, but we found that it made almost no difference to the overall ratings, partly because each NBA team plays about half its games at home and half on the road. So we’re using the constant 100-point home-court advantage instead.Margin of VictoryElo strikes a nice balance between ratings systems that account for margin of victory and those that don’t. While teams always gain Elo points after wins and lose Elo points after losses, they gain or lose more with larger margins of victory.This works by assigning a multiplier to each game based on the final score and dividing it by a team’s projected margin of victory conditional upon having won the game. For instance, the Warriors’ 4-point margin over the Rockets in Game 1 of this year’s Western Conference finals was lower than Elo would expect for a Warriors win. So the Warriors gain Elo points, but not as many as if they’d won by a larger margin. The formula accounts for diminishing returns; going from a 5-point win to a 10-point win matters more than going from a 25-point win to a 30-point win. For the exact formula, see the footnotes.2The margin of victory multiplier is calculated as follows.Take a team’s margin of victory, add 3 points and then take the result to the power of 0.8.Divide the result by the following formula: 7.5+.006*(elo_diff), where elo_diff represents the Elo rating difference between the teams, accounting for home-court advantage. Elo_diff should be negative in games won by the underdog.For instance, in Game 1 of the Warriors-Rockets series, the Warriors entered the game with a an Elo rating 118 points higher than the Rockets’ and had home-court advantage, for an elo_diff of +218. They wound up winning the game by 4 points. Thus, their margin of victory multiplier is calculated as follows:What if the Rockets had won by 4 points instead? Since they were underdogs, they’d get a larger multiplier:While this formula may seem clunky, it accounts for the fact that favorites tend to win games by larger margins than they lose them. Failing to correct for this will introduce autocorrelation into the system and make the ratings less stable. See here for further discussion.Year-to-Year Carry-OverInstead of resetting each team’s rating when a new season begins, Elo carries over a portion of a team’s rating from one season to the next. In our NFL Elo ratings, teams retain two-thirds of their rating from the end of the previous season. In our NBA ratings, by contrast, they keep three-quarters of it. The higher fraction reflects the fact that NBA teams are more consistent from year to year than NFL squads.For example, the Miami Heat ended the 2012-13 NBA season with an Elo rating of 1754. The team’s Elo rating for the start of the 2013-14 season is calculated as follows:(.75 * 1754) + (.25 * 1505) = 1692Detail-oriented readers may see something that seems amiss here. Each team’s Elo rating is reverted to the mean, and — as we’ve said — the long-term mean Elo rating is 1500. So why does a slightly different number, 1505, appear in the formula?Expansion, Contraction and MergersThe reason has to do with the way we handle expansion teams. In principle, the implementation of this is pretty simple. Each franchise begins with an Elo rating of 1300 in its inaugural professional season. The reason we revert to a mean of 1505 rather than 1500 is that there are liable to be a couple of relatively recent expansion teams in the league at any given time. Giving established teams a rating very slightly higher than 1500 counteracts the expansion teams and keeps the league average Elo close to 1500 over the long run.But the league average Elo rating will be slightly different from 1500 in any given season, depending on how recently the league has expanded. It was 1504.5 during the 2014-15 NBA season, for instance, slightly higher than the long-term average because the NBA hasn’t expanded much recently.The league average tended to fluctuate more in the early years of the NBA because of constant expansion, contraction and mergers with other leagues. (We’ve learned way more than we wanted to know about the early history of American professional basketball, like that you could have once watched a game between teams named the Indianapolis Kautskys and the Akron Firestone Non-Skids.) The league average reached a peak of 1534.5 in 1954-55 after a number of losing teams had disbanded. By contrast, it was just 1440.5 in the 1970-71 season after the NBA expanded rapidly.There’s one other tricky part. We said a team begins with a rating of 1300 in its first professional season. That doesn’t mean its first NBA season. Instead, teams get credit for their performance in predecessor leagues that merged with the NBA:The Basketball Association of America (BAA), which began play in 1946-47, is usually considered the official predecessor of the NBA. So we track all BAA teams’ Elo ratings explicitly, starting them at 1300 in 1946-47.We also track American Basketball Association (ABA) Elo ratings explicitly — yes, that includes The Floridians! — starting them at a rating of 1300 in the ABA’s inaugural season of 1967-68. The year-end adjustment takes care of the rest, allowing the ABA’s performance to gradually improve over time. The four ABA teams that joined the NBA in 1976-77 simply carry over their ratings from ABA. Because these teams — the Indiana Pacers, San Antonio Spurs, Denver Nuggets and New York Nets — had been among the more successful ABA franchises, Elo ratings imply that the merger with the ABA did not weaken the NBA much. The four ABA imports averaged a respectable 40-42 record in their first three NBA seasons, in fact.The National Basketball League (NBL) was a competing professional basketball league that began play in 1937-38 and included colorfully named franchises like the Non-Skids. It merged into the BAA in advance of the 1949-50 season, at which point the combined league was renamed the NBA. In fact, most of the better franchises in the early days of the NBA originated in the NBL rather than the BAA, including the Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals and Fort Wayne Pistons. While we could not track down game-by-game results for the NBL, we inferred Elo ratings for NBL teams based on the season standings and playoff results, and these ratings carry over when teams enter the NBA. For instance, the Syracuse Nationals (now the Philadelphia 76ers) begin with a rating of 1458 in their first NBA season in 1949-50.Finally, one early NBA team, the Baltimore Bullets, originated in a third early league, the American Basketball League (ABL). Confusingly, that original version of the Baltimore Bullets bears no relationship with the team that would later play as the Baltimore Bullets from 1963 to 1973 (and which is now known as the Washington Wizards). However, Elo gives the original Baltimore Bullets credit for the seasons they played in the ABL.3Since data on the ABL is very hard to come by, the Bullets’ initial rating is simply calculated by starting them with a rating of 1300 and then reverting them toward the mean of 1505 for each season they played in that league. You can find the starting Elo ratings for the Bullets and NBL teams below: 180067-15All-time great 130022-60LOL 140031-51In the lottery Rochester RoyalsSacramento Kings19481535 Minneapolis LakersLos Angeles Lakers19481527 Waterloo Hawks–19491382 Tri-Cities BlackhawksAtlanta Hawks19491430 Teams retain their prior Elo ratings when they change cities or nicknames. This includes the teams now known as the New Orleans Pelicans and Charlotte Hornets. The NBA, in a bit of revisionist history, considers the current Charlotte Hornets (who were known as the Charlotte Bobcats until this season) to “own” the statistics of the team that played as the Charlotte Hornets from 1988-89 through 2001-02, before they moved to New Orleans. We instead link those Hornets seasons with the New Orleans Hornets, who are now the New Orleans Pelicans. Denver Nuggets–19491295 Syracuse NationalsPhiladelphia 76ers19491458 160051-31Playoff bound Hopefully if you’re reading this, you’ve had a chance to explore our new interactive graphic, “The Complete History Of The NBA,” which tracks each NBA and ABA franchise’s performance through every game of its history.So now for the exciting part: 2,000 words about autocorrelation and the Akron Firestone Non-Skids.Actually, this won’t be too bad because Elo is a pretty simple formula. The guts of the system are the same as we used for the NFL and which other researchers have applied to competitions ranging from chess to soccer. For those new to Elo, here are its essential features:The ratings depend only on the final score of each game and where it was played (home-court advantage). They include both regular-season and playoff games. The principal source for game-by-game scores is Basketball-Reference.com.Teams always gain Elo points after winning games and lose ground after losing them. They gain more points for upset wins and for winning by wider margins.The system is zero-sum. When the Denver Nuggets gained 30 Elo points by upsetting the No. 1 seed Seattle SuperSonics in the first round of the 1994 NBA playoffs, the Sonics lost 30 points.Ratings are established on a game-by-game rather than a season-by-season basis. So you can see changes in a team’s “form” over the course of the year: The Toronto Raptors had a much higher rating early in the 2014-15 season than at the end of it, while the reverse has been true for the Cleveland Cavaliers.The long-term average Elo rating is 1500, although it can vary slightly in any particular year based on how recently the league has expanded (more about that below). More than 90 percent of team ratings are between 1300 (pretty awful) and 1700 (really good), but historically great or truly execrable teams can fall outside that range: Indianapolis Jets–19481366 170060-22Title contender NBL/ABL TEAMCURRENT FRANCHISEFIRST YEAR IN NBA/BAASTARTING ELO
Ohio State earned its second commitment on National Signing Day and its 26th member of the 2018 recruiting class with linebacker Javontae Jean-Baptiste.The four-star from Oradell, New Jersey, gives the Buckeyes their fourth linebacker in the class along with Dallas Gant, Teradja Mitchell and K’Vaughan Pope.Jean-Baptiste is currently ranked as the No. 219 overall recruit in the 2018 class, according to 247Sports composite. He is also the 16th-best linebacker and sixth-best recruit in the state.Ohio State only has one other current player on its roster from New Jersey, although that area has been a hotbed for recruits since Urban Meyer became head coach for the 2012 season.Jean-Baptiste was primarily recruited by safeties coach and defensive coordinator Greg Schiano, who told Bruce Feldman of FOX Sports that he will return to the Buckeyes in 2018 after being reportedly interested in the New England Patriots defensive coordinator job.Ohio State currently ranks behind Georgia as the No. 2 overall recruiting class.Correction: The original publication said Ohio State had the No. 1 overall 2018 recruiting class, where it in fact is ranked behind Georgia at No. 2.