Repurposed Mandela Centre to inspire

first_img28 May 2013 The newly refurbished Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory will soon be officially opened for South Africans and visitors to the country to explore and enjoy the legacy of the life and times of Nelson Mandela. Speaking to SAnews during an event to showcase the refurbished centre in Johannesburg on Monday, Sello Hatang, who will take over the reins as the centre’s CEO on June 1, said: “We’ve got a centre that is beginning to re-imagine itself as a public resource. “We hope that in August or September when we [officially] open, a lot of south Africans, people from other countries in Africa, including the global community, will be able to come and enjoy what we have here. “We want to serve as a centre that will galvanise people to do Mandela Day activities daily, organise people around dialogue, and share Madiba’s legacy.” Hatang said the facility represented the final transition of Mandela’s post-presidential office into a public and dialogue facility, as well as a physical home for Madiba’s legacy, adding that Mandela did not belong to any one institution, but was a global resource to be shared. Hatang noted that entry to the refurbished centre would be free but by appointment only, as the facility would not be able to cater to large numbers of visitors at the same time.50 years since arrival on Robben Island Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe, who attended Monday’s event, said the refurbishing of the centre also coincided with the 50th anniversary of Mandela’s arrival on Robben Island. It was on 27 May 1963 when Mandela arrived on Robben Island as a prisoner for the first time, just over six months after he was sentenced to five years in prison for leaving the country without a passport and inciting workers to strike. Motlanthe said Madiba was an iconic figure not only for the country, but for the international community as well. The Deputy President also emphasised the importance of archives in measuring progress towards goals. “Distance in a temporal sense is managed by the future as projected by those who came before us. We need to go back in time and mine the important resolutions and dreams from the archives to measure how far we’ve come,” he said. The acting chairperson of the Mandela Centre of Memory and chairperson of the Mandela Rhodes Foundation, Professor Njabulo Ndebele, said the three key objectives of the centre were to deliver to the world an integrated information resource on the life and times of Nelson Mandela; to convene dialogues on critical social issues of the day; and to share Madiba’s legacy through campaigns such as Mandela Day. The centre’s outgoing CEO, Achmat Dangor, said he had learned two important lessons from Mandela: firstly, that when you are fundraising, “don’t leave without the cheque”. And secondly, “when you bring people together who agree with one another, that’s a chat; but when they disagree and want to talk about it, that’s dialogue.”Exploring the centre Guests at Monday’s event were invited to browse the centre’s reading room and spend a moment in Madiba’s post-presidential office, which has been transformed into a public dialogue facility. The office has been preserved exactly as he left it in 2010. The upper level of the centre has been transformed into an interactive space for visitors, with a permanent exhibition called The Life & Times of Nelson Mandela. It will also feature a reading room for research and reference work, as well as facilities to host discussions. On the lower level, a high-tech archival storage facility has been created for the centre’s archival collections, including Madiba’s personal papers. Source: SAnews.gov.zalast_img read more

Elegant navy chiffon Flower & feather fascinator On comb, not too small nor large just the perfect size. Speedy arrival and boxed neatly

first_imgNavy blue chiffon flower, feather fascinator. . Delighted with the fascinator with regards to layout and color. The comb failed to maintain pretty properly in my hair. Price was shockingly very low and it arrived in plenty of time for when i needed it.Bought this for ladies day amazing worth for revenue seriously pleased with it.Superior coments from other wedding friends. Excellent coments from other wedding guests.Comments from buyers“Brilliant find-cannot believe the price., On first glance it was the perfect colour, not too big or small, The price is fantastic as had been looking for something similar on the , Good coments from other Wedding guests, it is just what I wanted and the colour is perfect for my outfit, this is just what i wanted to wear for a wedding prompt courteous service delivery ahead of date everything went smoothly thanks”Attractive little fascination, arrived properly in time also.The price tag is wonderful as experienced been wanting for a thing equivalent on the. This fascinator is just what i was hunting for. Just the appropriate dimension and colour. The selling price is amazing as experienced been searching for something similar on the substantial avenue and the most inexpensive was a few periods the price of this.For a a single-time use at a wedding it is ideal.I didnt use it in the conclusion due to the fact the flower stood out as well much from the comb but its all right. I would advise for a wedding outfit on a spending budget it you have significant hair.Great size and quite great worth for the. Pretty fascinator, wonderful dimension and very very good benefit for the selling price.Great product for the cost, fast delivery truly pleased with it many thanks very significantly.It was squashed in the little box it arrived in. Not utilised it but as wedding in september.Excellent merchandise – excellent support arrived on time -perfectly worthy of the cash -would suggest.I acquired this for my buddy as she’s likely to her sons wedding & i am certain she’ll glance a million dollars it it as it really is just best.Cherished it outstanding worth,do you do other things?.In which could you get one thing for this cost.Extremely delighted with the merchandise, it arrived four times ahead of the believed supply day.Not also modest nor large just the best size. Speedy arrival and boxed neatly. Acquired for a wedding, it was certainly attractive, not also compact nor big just the fantastic dimensions. Fast arrival and boxed neatly.Its wonderful, excellent selling price. Its lovely, outstanding cost, superb shipping and delivery 100% perfect all over, will surely propose and use all over again, thank you xa*********** services.Fantastic merchandise specifically as explained would absolutely shop with this supplier all over again very excellent worth for the rate.It is just what i wished and the colour is perfect for my outfit. I have just purchased this comb fascinator from you for a wedding in august, it is charming . Supply was genuinely brief and on opening the offer i was definitely amazed, it is just what i desired and the colour is perfect for my outfit. For the cash it is an absolute cut price .Thank you very a great deal, will surely use you yet again for future related buys, pretty satisfied, thank you.Amazing come across-can not think the value. . Hats and i have a mutual dislike. Unfortunately i absolutely have to have one particular for a wedding this summertime so i resolved that a fascinator would be the lesser evil. Most of the types i looked at were being attached to some variation of an alice band-which i did not like- until finally i arrived across this minimal gem which also transpired to be a great colour match for my outfit. Like a past reviewer i determined that i could chance it for the cost. And what a fantastic shock. I enjoy it, it seems fantastic and i experience terrific donning it. My husband was amazed and imagined that the value was ridiculously lower presented that it appears to be like and feels improved than lots of i tried using on at £50 moreover. He does not normally advise price boosts for my buys.The picture really doesn’t do it justice. Would surely endorse this merchandise.I was incredibly delighted with the flower it was great for my daughters wedding.Seriously good price tag and very neat. A minor squashed in the packing but quickly revived with a minimal steaming.Just what i desired and sent immediately.Appears to be precisely like the photo, high-quality is fantastic, thank you.last_img read more

Ohio’s young hunters harvest nearly 6,000 deer during youth gun season

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Ohio’s young hunters braved less than ideal weather conditions over the weekend and checked 5,930 white-tailed deer during the two-day youth gun season, Nov. 19-20, according to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR). During last year’s youth gun season, 7,223 white-tailed deer were checked.Youth hunters could pursue deer with a legal shotgun, muzzleloader, handgun or specific straight-walled cartridge rifle and were required to be accompanied by a non-hunting adult during the two-day season. The youth deer-gun season is one of four special youth-only hunting seasons designed to offer a dedicated hunting experience for young hunters. Youth hunting seasons are also available for small game, wild turkey and waterfowl.Ohio offers many more opportunities for hunters of all ages to pursue deer. The deer-gun season is Monday, Nov. 28, through Sunday, Dec. 4, and Dec. 17-18. Deer-muzzleloader season is Saturday, Jan. 7, through Tuesday, Jan. 10, 2017. Deer-archery season is open now through Sunday, Feb. 5, 2017. Find complete details in the 2016-2017 Ohio Hunting and Trapping Regulations at wildohio.gov.Youth hunters can commemorate their hunt with a First Harvest certificate, available at wildohio.gov. Participants can upload a photo and type in their information to personalize the certificate. Hunters can also share photos by clicking on the Photo Gallery tab online.For summaries of past deer seasons, visit wildohio.gov/deerharvest.last_img read more

Virginity test: Maharashtra Minister promises action against Kanjarbhat caste panchayats

first_imgThe Maharashtra government on Wednesday assured the State Legislative Council that caste panchayats of the Kanjarbhat community would face action if they compelled newly married women to undergo a ‘virginity test’Action would also be taken if the panchayat members were found to be interfering in cases of rape and sexual harassment, said Minister of State for Home Ranjit Patil.The Minister was responding to a calling attention motion tabled by Shiv Sena’s Neelam Gorhe.‘Hurts women’s dignity’The Kanjarbhat community’s custom, in which newly married women are expected to undergo a test to prove that they were virgin before marriage, hurt women’s dignity, Mr. Gorhe said.She also alleged that these panchayats also tried and settled cases of rape and sexual harassment outside the court.‘File criminal case’“Cases should be registered against them (panchayat members). Conducting a virginity test and announcing its result publicly is a violation of woman’s right to privacy. Her virginity status should not be disclosed to the public,” Mr. Gorhe said.Mr. Patil said police would be asked to register a criminal case if a panchayat forced a woman to undergo a virginity test.Awareness meet“The government will also take action if caste panchayat members are found interfering in cases of rape and sexual harassment,” he added.“We will hold a meeting of caste panchayats and social activists next month to create awareness about the issue,” Mr. Patil said.last_img read more

Separatists call for strike to mark Afzal Guru’s sixth death anniversary

first_imgNormal life in Kashmir was affected on Saturday due to a strike called by separatists to mark the sixth death anniversary of Parliament attack convict Mohammad Afzal Guru, who was hanged on this day in 2013.Shops and other business establishments remained closed while public transport was off the roads due to the shutdown called by the separatists, officials said.Separatists Joint Resistance Leadership (JRL), consisting of both factions of Hurriyat Conference and Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF), called for a shutdown to press for their demand that Afzal Guru’s mortal remains be returned for burial in Kashmir.Authorities have placed Syed Ali Shah Geelani, Mirwaiz Umar Farooq and several other separatist leaders under house arrest to prevent them from holding any protest marches, the officials said. Security personnel have been deployed in strength at vulnerable places across the valley for maintaining law and order, they said.Afzal Guru was hanged and buried inside New Delhi’s Tihar jail on February 9, 2013.last_img read more

Back from the dead, Aces stay in playoff hunt

first_imgMOST READ That mentality was in full display in the game against the Picanto as Alaska pulled itself back from 10 points down.Abueva was at is best, doing a little bit of everything including getting into Kia import Geron Johnson’s head.With Johnson losing his focus, Alaska capitalized with its import Buck Henton and starting point guard JVee Casio coming through down the stretch.Abueva admitted that Johnson’s aggressiveness caught the Aces by surprise.“We were rattled,” he said. “We knew we needed a win, but we struggled getting any momentum in the first three quarters. But in the fourth quarter, everything clicked and that was when we were able to show our energy and hustle. All we wanted was to win.”ADVERTISEMENT Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Frontrow holds fun run to raise funds for young cancer patients  WATCH: Streetboys show off slick dance moves in Vhong Navarro’s wedding Read Next Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Fire hits houses in Mandaluyong City However, if there’s one positive thing their slump gave the Aces, it’s that they can’t take any team lightly.“Before, we’re a bit overexcited. We felt that we could beat anyone, but we were wrong. We realized that it’s not going to be easy,” said Abueva. “Now, I think we’re being more solid. We’re getting our momentum back and I hope we continue this.”Alaska stakes its three-game winning streak against Meralco. BSP sees higher prices in November, but expects stronger peso, low rice costs to put up fight Calvin Abueva. PBA IMAGESAfter Alaska’s 0-6 start in the 2017 PBA Governors’ Cup, the players know that they have no choice but to play like there’s no tomorrow.Not only are the Aces’ campaign this conference is hanging in the balance, but so are their careers as well.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES “Our captain (JVee Casio) said that a lot of us have expiring contracts. So if we want to get extended, get a raise, we have to make it to the playoffs,” said Calvin Abueva in Filipino.That explains the heightened sense of urgency of the Aces for the past three games as they snapped their inglorious 14-game losing skid dating back to last conference.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutAlaska has now won three straight games with its latest victory at the expense of Kia, 102-94, on Sunday.“We’re willing to die just for us to play well and make it to the playoffs,” the energetic forward said. View comments San Miguel ends Ginebra’s 7-game run Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. E.T. returns to earth, reunites with grown-up Elliott in new ad  LOOK: Loisa Andalio, Ronnie Alonte unwind in Amanpulo for 3rd anniversary Nonong Araneta re-elected as PFF presidentlast_img read more

Ranji Trophy Final: Akshay Wadkar’s maiden century helps Vidarbha gain upper hand against Delhi

first_imgAkshay Wadkar was the hero for Vidarbha against Delhi on day three of the Ranji Trophy final at the Holkar Stadium in Indore. At stumps on day three Vidarbha lead Delhi by 233 runs, as they finished with 528/7 after 156 overs on the board.The stage was set for Wasim Jaffer, resuming his inning from 61, to score another ‘big one’. But Jaffer was surprised by a incoming Navdeep Saini delivery. The veteran had to depart for 78, trapped while trying to work the ball from his pads.Delhi were sniffing for a way back in the game, but in stepped Akshay Wadkar and Aditya Sarwate for the seventh wicket to flatten any such misconceptions. They joined forces at 204 and by the time Delhi finally managed to breach Sarwate’s defences, Vidarbha had gone make 415 on the scoreboard.Sarwate was sent back by Nitish Rana trying to fish outside his off stump, as skipper Rishabh Pant held for dear life. He scored 79 from 154 balls, which included 11 boundaries.Wicket keeper Akshay Wadkar went onto score his maiden first-class century. At the end day’s play he was unbeaten on 133 runs off 243 balls. His innings was studded with 16 fours and one six.He was invlved in two massive partnerships, a 169-run partnership for the seventh wicket with Sarwate and another 113-run partnership for the 8th wicket with Siddesh Neral. Neral also reached his half-century, ending the day on 56 off 96 balls.On day 2 , Rajneesh Gurbani ended a 45-year-old drought by claiming his maiden hat-trick, to become only the second bowler after Tamil Nadu’s B Kalyanasundaram to take three wickets of successive deliveries as Vidarbha bowled out Delhi for 295. Gurbani removed Navdeep Saini, Dhruv Shorey and Kulwant Khejroliya off successive balls.advertisementlast_img read more

a month agoHenrik Larsson linked with Southend job

first_imgTagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Henrik Larsson linked with Southend jobby Paul Vegasa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveFormer Manchester United striker Henrik Larsson is being linked with a return to England.The Daily Mail says he has emerged as a target for Southend United.The League One side want to bring in the Swedish icon to replace Kevin Bond.The Shrimps side have been without a manager for two weeks.They remain winless this season in the league and lost 4-3 at Shrewsbury last night.They’ve lost seven and drawn one of their eight games so far this campaign.Larsson quit as Helsingborgs boss last month over the alleged level of “verbal insults” he received. last_img read more

Photo: Here’s the No. 1 RB In The 2016 Class, Kareem Walker, Posing With The Heisman Trophy In An Ohio State Jersey

first_imgKareem Walker poses with Heisman Trophy.Kareem Walker is the No. 1 running back in the 2016 and he’s committed to play at Ohio State. You probably don’t remember him committing, Buckeye fans, because he made his pledge during your team’s College Football Playoff National Championship Game. It’s understandable. The 6-foot-1, 210-pound back out of Wayne, New Jersey, is ranked the No. 9 player in the country by 247 Sports’ Composite Rankings. He’s talented enough to become one of the best running backs the Buckeyes have ever had – and they’ve had plenty. Former Ohio State greats Archie Griffin (1974, ’75) and Eddie George (1995) both won the Heisman Trophy during their time in Columbus. Could Walker become the third running back in Ohio State history to win the award (or, possibly, the fourth if Ezekiel Elliot takes it home in 2015)? Here he is posing in a Buckeye uniform with the trophy. Tb #BuckeyeNation #Heisman pic.twitter.com/gqMKyEFW26— AlⓂ️ightyReem (@_KareemWalker) January 19, 2015Ohio State currently has five commitments in the 2016 class – one five-star (Walker) and four four-stars.last_img read more

How We Calculate NBA Elo Ratings

Anderson Packers–19491562 ELOEQUIVALENT RECORDTEAM DESCRIPTION Baltimore Bullets–19471419 Fort Wayne PistonsDetroit Pistons19481495 120015-67Historically awful 150041-41Average Sheboygan Red Skins–19491405 There are just a few NBA-specific parameters to set, which we’ll describe below.The K-factorElo’s K-factor determines how quickly the rating reacts to new game results. It should be set so as to efficiently account for new data but not overreact to it. (In a more technical sense, the goal is to minimize autocorrelation.) If K is set too high, the ratings will jump around too much; if it’s set too low, Elo will take too long to recognize important changes in team quality.We found the optimal K for the NBA to be 20. This is higher than we expected; it’s in the same range as the K used for NFL and international soccer Elo ratings even though the NBA plays far more games than those sports. It’s much higher than the optimal K for baseball. It implies that you ought to give relatively high weight to an NBA team’s recent performance.One way to interpret this is that NBA data is subject to relatively little randomness. This makes it different from sports like baseball and hockey, whose game-by-game results are pretty noisy; in those sports, your default assumption should be that a winning or losing streak is mostly luck. That isn’t so true for basketball. Streaks may reflect true, if perhaps temporary, changes in team quality. When the Atlanta Hawks went on a 19-game winning streak this season, for instance, they were undoubtedly getting a little lucky, but they were probably tougher to beat than at other points in the season.There are still some cases in which Elo seems too slow to catch up to reality, like when Michael Jordan left the Bulls or LeBron James left the Cavs. But remember: Elo is only looking at game scores and not the composition of the roster. If that’s all the information you have, setting Elo to react more quickly to these cases would make it overreact to others. The Oklahoma City Thunder’s Elo rating never dipped below 1508 this year despite its 3-12 start, for instance, and that proved to be prudent since the team went 42-25 the rest of the way and ended the year with an Elo rating of 1583.Home-Court AdvantageHome-court advantage is set as equivalent to 100 Elo rating points. One hundred Elo points is equivalent to about 3.5 NBA points,1As for our NFL Elo ratings, it’s possible to translate NBA Elo ratings into point spreads. Here’s the formula: Take the difference of the two teams’ Elo ratings, add 100 points for the home team and then divide by 28. That gives you a projected margin of victory for the game. For instance, in Game 1 of the 2013-14 NBA Finals, the San Antonio Spurs had a 92-point Elo advantage over the Miami Heat, as well as home court, for an overall advantage of 192 Elo points. Dividing that by 28 would make San Antonio roughly 7-point favorites in the game. so that’s like saying the home team would be favored by 3 or 4 points if the teams were otherwise evenly matched.In practice, the magnitude of home-court advantage has waxed and waned over the NBA’s history. Home teams won by an average of 5.8 points in the 1987-88 regular season, for instance, but by just 2.4 points in the past season. And some teams (especially those like Denver and Utah that play at high altitudes) have historically had slightly larger home-court advantages.Still, the spirit of the Elo system is to keep things simple. We experimented with a dynamic home-court advantage rating that changes over time, but we found that it made almost no difference to the overall ratings, partly because each NBA team plays about half its games at home and half on the road. So we’re using the constant 100-point home-court advantage instead.Margin of VictoryElo strikes a nice balance between ratings systems that account for margin of victory and those that don’t. While teams always gain Elo points after wins and lose Elo points after losses, they gain or lose more with larger margins of victory.This works by assigning a multiplier to each game based on the final score and dividing it by a team’s projected margin of victory conditional upon having won the game. For instance, the Warriors’ 4-point margin over the Rockets in Game 1 of this year’s Western Conference finals was lower than Elo would expect for a Warriors win. So the Warriors gain Elo points, but not as many as if they’d won by a larger margin. The formula accounts for diminishing returns; going from a 5-point win to a 10-point win matters more than going from a 25-point win to a 30-point win. For the exact formula, see the footnotes.2The margin of victory multiplier is calculated as follows.Take a team’s margin of victory, add 3 points and then take the result to the power of 0.8.Divide the result by the following formula: 7.5+.006*(elo_diff), where elo_diff represents the Elo rating difference between the teams, accounting for home-court advantage. Elo_diff should be negative in games won by the underdog.For instance, in Game 1 of the Warriors-Rockets series, the Warriors entered the game with a an Elo rating 118 points higher than the Rockets’ and had home-court advantage, for an elo_diff of +218. They wound up winning the game by 4 points. Thus, their margin of victory multiplier is calculated as follows:What if the Rockets had won by 4 points instead? Since they were underdogs, they’d get a larger multiplier:While this formula may seem clunky, it accounts for the fact that favorites tend to win games by larger margins than they lose them. Failing to correct for this will introduce autocorrelation into the system and make the ratings less stable. See here for further discussion.Year-to-Year Carry-OverInstead of resetting each team’s rating when a new season begins, Elo carries over a portion of a team’s rating from one season to the next. In our NFL Elo ratings, teams retain two-thirds of their rating from the end of the previous season. In our NBA ratings, by contrast, they keep three-quarters of it. The higher fraction reflects the fact that NBA teams are more consistent from year to year than NFL squads.For example, the Miami Heat ended the 2012-13 NBA season with an Elo rating of 1754. The team’s Elo rating for the start of the 2013-14 season is calculated as follows:(.75 * 1754) + (.25 * 1505) = 1692Detail-oriented readers may see something that seems amiss here. Each team’s Elo rating is reverted to the mean, and — as we’ve said — the long-term mean Elo rating is 1500. So why does a slightly different number, 1505, appear in the formula?Expansion, Contraction and MergersThe reason has to do with the way we handle expansion teams. In principle, the implementation of this is pretty simple. Each franchise begins with an Elo rating of 1300 in its inaugural professional season. The reason we revert to a mean of 1505 rather than 1500 is that there are liable to be a couple of relatively recent expansion teams in the league at any given time. Giving established teams a rating very slightly higher than 1500 counteracts the expansion teams and keeps the league average Elo close to 1500 over the long run.But the league average Elo rating will be slightly different from 1500 in any given season, depending on how recently the league has expanded. It was 1504.5 during the 2014-15 NBA season, for instance, slightly higher than the long-term average because the NBA hasn’t expanded much recently.The league average tended to fluctuate more in the early years of the NBA because of constant expansion, contraction and mergers with other leagues. (We’ve learned way more than we wanted to know about the early history of American professional basketball, like that you could have once watched a game between teams named the Indianapolis Kautskys and the Akron Firestone Non-Skids.) The league average reached a peak of 1534.5 in 1954-55 after a number of losing teams had disbanded. By contrast, it was just 1440.5 in the 1970-71 season after the NBA expanded rapidly.There’s one other tricky part. We said a team begins with a rating of 1300 in its first professional season. That doesn’t mean its first NBA season. Instead, teams get credit for their performance in predecessor leagues that merged with the NBA:The Basketball Association of America (BAA), which began play in 1946-47, is usually considered the official predecessor of the NBA. So we track all BAA teams’ Elo ratings explicitly, starting them at 1300 in 1946-47.We also track American Basketball Association (ABA) Elo ratings explicitly — yes, that includes The Floridians! — starting them at a rating of 1300 in the ABA’s inaugural season of 1967-68. The year-end adjustment takes care of the rest, allowing the ABA’s performance to gradually improve over time. The four ABA teams that joined the NBA in 1976-77 simply carry over their ratings from ABA. Because these teams — the Indiana Pacers, San Antonio Spurs, Denver Nuggets and New York Nets — had been among the more successful ABA franchises, Elo ratings imply that the merger with the ABA did not weaken the NBA much. The four ABA imports averaged a respectable 40-42 record in their first three NBA seasons, in fact.The National Basketball League (NBL) was a competing professional basketball league that began play in 1937-38 and included colorfully named franchises like the Non-Skids. It merged into the BAA in advance of the 1949-50 season, at which point the combined league was renamed the NBA. In fact, most of the better franchises in the early days of the NBA originated in the NBL rather than the BAA, including the Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals and Fort Wayne Pistons. While we could not track down game-by-game results for the NBL, we inferred Elo ratings for NBL teams based on the season standings and playoff results, and these ratings carry over when teams enter the NBA. For instance, the Syracuse Nationals (now the Philadelphia 76ers) begin with a rating of 1458 in their first NBA season in 1949-50.Finally, one early NBA team, the Baltimore Bullets, originated in a third early league, the American Basketball League (ABL). Confusingly, that original version of the Baltimore Bullets bears no relationship with the team that would later play as the Baltimore Bullets from 1963 to 1973 (and which is now known as the Washington Wizards). However, Elo gives the original Baltimore Bullets credit for the seasons they played in the ABL.3Since data on the ABL is very hard to come by, the Bullets’ initial rating is simply calculated by starting them with a rating of 1300 and then reverting them toward the mean of 1505 for each season they played in that league. You can find the starting Elo ratings for the Bullets and NBL teams below: 180067-15All-time great 130022-60LOL 140031-51In the lottery Rochester RoyalsSacramento Kings19481535 Minneapolis LakersLos Angeles Lakers19481527 Waterloo Hawks–19491382 Tri-Cities BlackhawksAtlanta Hawks19491430 Teams retain their prior Elo ratings when they change cities or nicknames. This includes the teams now known as the New Orleans Pelicans and Charlotte Hornets. The NBA, in a bit of revisionist history, considers the current Charlotte Hornets (who were known as the Charlotte Bobcats until this season) to “own” the statistics of the team that played as the Charlotte Hornets from 1988-89 through 2001-02, before they moved to New Orleans. We instead link those Hornets seasons with the New Orleans Hornets, who are now the New Orleans Pelicans. Denver Nuggets–19491295 Syracuse NationalsPhiladelphia 76ers19491458 160051-31Playoff bound Hopefully if you’re reading this, you’ve had a chance to explore our new interactive graphic, “The Complete History Of The NBA,” which tracks each NBA and ABA franchise’s performance through every game of its history.So now for the exciting part: 2,000 words about autocorrelation and the Akron Firestone Non-Skids.Actually, this won’t be too bad because Elo is a pretty simple formula. The guts of the system are the same as we used for the NFL and which other researchers have applied to competitions ranging from chess to soccer. For those new to Elo, here are its essential features:The ratings depend only on the final score of each game and where it was played (home-court advantage). They include both regular-season and playoff games. The principal source for game-by-game scores is Basketball-Reference.com.Teams always gain Elo points after winning games and lose ground after losing them. They gain more points for upset wins and for winning by wider margins.The system is zero-sum. When the Denver Nuggets gained 30 Elo points by upsetting the No. 1 seed Seattle SuperSonics in the first round of the 1994 NBA playoffs, the Sonics lost 30 points.Ratings are established on a game-by-game rather than a season-by-season basis. So you can see changes in a team’s “form” over the course of the year: The Toronto Raptors had a much higher rating early in the 2014-15 season than at the end of it, while the reverse has been true for the Cleveland Cavaliers.The long-term average Elo rating is 1500, although it can vary slightly in any particular year based on how recently the league has expanded (more about that below). More than 90 percent of team ratings are between 1300 (pretty awful) and 1700 (really good), but historically great or truly execrable teams can fall outside that range: Indianapolis Jets–19481366 170060-22Title contender NBL/ABL TEAMCURRENT FRANCHISEFIRST YEAR IN NBA/BAASTARTING ELO read more