Following the retrenchment of social policy under a period of turbulent military rule, Chile has endeavored to drastically reform its healthcare and pension systems, aiming to reduce poverty, inequality and provide a model for other nations seeking change. Rossana Castiglioni, head of the political science department at Chile’s Universidad Diego Portales, outlined this social policy journey during her Tuesday lecture, titled “Against All Odds: Social Policy Rollbacks in Democratic Chile.” Castiglioni said the democratically elected presidents of Chile in the 1990s, Patricio Aylwin and Eduardo Frei, inherited a system that split healthcare between public provision under Fonasa, a fund into which workers paid seven percent of their monthly income, and Isapre, a system of private healthcare providers. For an additional premium, workers could buy into the private Isapre system in order to receive greater benefits and overall superior care. Castiglioni said this system generated enormous amounts of inequality, with private providers charging certain demographic groups discriminatory prices in the hope of driving high-risk individuals to seek Fonasa government insurance. “If you were a woman and you were at an age to have kids, they will charge you a lot,” Castiglioni said. “And if you are old, either pray or pay, because they will charge you a lot of money.” Castiglioni said Aylwin and Frei were content to preside over further expansion of the private sphere of the healthcare system disproportionately favoring the wealthy. She said it was not until President Ricardo Lagos took office from 2000 to 2006 that efforts were made to address growing inequalities and bolster support for the nation’s vulnerable citizens. By introducing his AUGE plan, granting access to medical attention within a clear timetable to all patients who reach the inclusion criteria for one of 69 pathologies or medical conditions, Lagos implemented the greatest change to Chilean healthcare in 20 years, Castiglioni said. She said despite Lagos’ concerted effort to eliminate discrimination in the private health system, and despite a recent ruling of the Chilean Constitutional Tribunal declaring such discrimination “inadmissible,” the issue has not yet been resolved. “Lagos tried to tackle inequalities and discrimination, particularly in terms of age and sex, but the truth is that even though other parts of his reforms were approved discrimination still exists,” Castiglioni said. Following Lagos’ term, President Michelle Bachelet took up the banner of social policy after Lagos’ departure from office, putting together an advisory council to elaborate a pension reform proposal, Castiglioni said. The March 2008 law drawn up by this team of economists and sociologists stood as a capstone of Chilean social reform, introducing a “basic solidarity pillar” through which 40 percent of the poorest of the population, many of who had never contributed to the system, would be entitled to receive an old age pension or a disability pension of around 100 dollars. Although the recent changes in Chilean social policy have had a significant impact, Castiglioni said she ultimately does not feel they should be classified as structural reform. She blamed the lack of true structural reform on the dispersion of power, weakness of non-state actors and ideological distribution of the political system. These three factors are holding Chile back from taking more aggressive steps in reforming its system of social protection, Castiglioni said.
Nigerian boxer, Larry Ekundayo is delighted to share the same gym with World Heavyweight Boxing champion, Anthony Joshua at the Finchley and District Amateur Boxing Club in United Kingdom. The International Boxing Federation (IBF) European champion, who is hoping to bring his title defence to Nigeria, is also listed by the Commonwealth Boxing Council as one of the contenders for the Commonwealth Welterweight title held by Chris Jenkins. In a chat with Sportinglife.ng, the 38-year-old, who defeated Nathan Hardy in his last fight at the York Hall, Bethnal Green in London in February, said training at the same gym with AJ is an amazing experience. “I had a wonderful time training in the same gym with AJ. Even though we did not spar together because we were in two different weight categories, he is always an inspiration,” Ekundayo told Sportinglife.ng on Wednesday.Advertisement The Natural, as he is fondly called also uploaded after-training pictures with the the two-time unified world heavyweight champion on his Instagram account with the caption, “It’s great training alongside my brother today Anthony Joshua. Massive thank you to uncle Foleys Wisdom and the boys for having me today.” Joshua on the other hand is currently preparing to fight Bulgarian Kubrat Pulev in a mandatory defence of his titles after winning them back from Andy Ruiz Jr, although a date for the bout remains unknown after the original date was postponed by the coronavirus outbreak. Joshua’s road to success cannot be completed without the mention of his former boxing gym Finchley and District Amateur Boxing Club. Loading… Read Also: Oshoala leads Barca charge for UCL silverware, wins over parentsHe joined the amateur boxing club in 2007 at the age of 18 when his cousin suggested he take up the sport, before he went on to win the 2009 and 2010 Haringey Box Cup.Former Commonwealth champion and world number nine, Dereck Chisora also boxed at the same gym at the beginning of his career.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Promoted Content10 Risky Jobs Some Women DoCouples Who Celebrated Their Union In A Unique, Unforgettable WayThis Guy Photoshopped Himself Into Celeb Pics And It’s HystericalWorld’s Most Delicious Foods7 Universities In The World Where Education Costs Too Much7 Black Hole Facts That Will Change Your View Of The UniverseWhat Is A Black Hole And Is It Dangerous For Us All?Birds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For Them6 Interesting Ways To Make Money With A DroneBest Car Manufacturers In The World2020 Tattoo Trends: Here’s What You’ll See This YearEver Thought Of Sleeping Next To Celebs? This Guy Will Show You