A time of need and a desire to help “Our work will help the IMF advance how they gather more real-time insights to inform their understanding of what is happening on the ground in countries in Africa. It’s important to not lose sight of the fact that we are not tracking economic activity for the sake of monitoring whether GDP is going up or down, but rather to enable evidence-based decision-making that impacts real human lives and well-being,” said Tang. “Our project is one small way of contributing to the many ongoing efforts to address systematic inequalities and to democratize access to information.”“It was awesome to work with this team, and I enjoyed seeing them take ownership of their projects,” said Reda Cherif, a senior economist at the IMF who works in the African department. “Not only were they willing to learn and try different approaches or angles, but they also really leveraged their creativity and were able to make multilevel contributions to this work. They showed that the data they collected actually mattered.” Time to resume COVID restrictions in some safe states? When COVID-19 forced Harvard’s undergraduates to evacuate campus this past spring, many of them faced difficult choices. For Jerry Huang ’22, a joint concentrator in computer science and statistics and CEO of the Harvard College Data Analytics Group (HDAG), the choice was clear: he needed to use his skills, and his organization, to make a difference in this critical moment.“When many of us were sent home, we saw a pressing need from society to have people who were able to provide data-driven insights related to COVID-19. We saw that many organizations needed help,” said Huang, who created the group back in January. “So, we leveraged our infrastructure of driven students in order to engage with clients and provide them with data-science services, including data modeling, visualization, and journalism. We bridged the Harvard community and these organizations together.”In April, the a student-led nonprofit organization created 17 COVID-19 response teams, each made up of four to six members, that partnered with 16 organizations and municipal governments to tackle elements of the COVID-19 crisis. These included the World Health Organization (WHO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the city government of Denver. Originally a small cohort of about 25 undergraduates, HDAG soon had more than 100 members from across the University.“This experience was amazingly rewarding,” said Joey Toker ’21, who led a team working with the International Telecommunication Union. Because the COVID-19 crisis has placed great stress on internet usage, the group decided to explore how different companies and countries were meeting the demand. “This was a real chance to help out policymakers and to figure out what other countries are doing in response to the pandemic. All of this work contributes to ideas for how we can tackle this unprecedented, global problem, and how we connect with others from across the world while doing so.” “Our work will help the [International Monetary Fund] advance how they gather more real-time insights to inform their understanding of what is happening on the ground in countries in Africa.” — Jiawen Tang The group found success among their diverse projects. The WHO team, led by Justin Zhu ’21, created an interface that estimates COVID-19 transmission rates, which can inform WHO’s future policies. The Education Trust Michigan team, led by Evelyn Cai ’22, successfully mapped internet access rates by public school district in Michigan to address the “digital divide” that affects students enrolled in virtual classes.“My younger brother was taking online classes without much supervision. I was worried about how his school would be able to effectively teach online, and I also saw the transition to virtual learning as a much larger problem that many others were going through,” said Cai. “I think there is great potential for this visualization tool we have created to impact policymakers, and to make change.”Jiawen Tang, a graduate student at HKS and Stanford, led her team of Brandon Buell ’20, Carissa Chen ’21, Hyeon-Jae Seo ’20, and Nils Wendt, a computing group exchange scholar at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences as they consolidated and analyzed mobile payment data, satellite imagery, Google trends, and other macroeconomic data to create a “near future” forecast of economic activity in African countries. Through this analysis, the IMF will be able to better assess the economic impact of COVID-19 in specific sub-Saharan African countries. Related As school year nears, expert notes recent upticks, speed of virus’ spread Student volunteers find ways to make a difference amid the pandemic’s disruption and loss
Wellington Police notes for Monday, May 4, 2015â€¢9:25 a.m. Officers took a courtesy motor vehicle accident report in the 200 block E. 15th, Wellington involving vehicles operated by Raymond J. Hendrick, 41, Vinita, and Clinton A. Mans, 40, Attica.â€¢12:24 p.m. Officers took a report of found wallet in the 300 block N. Washington, Wellington.â€¢1:25 p.m. Officers took a report of a neighbor dispute by known subject(s) in the 100 block W. Shady Lane Ct, Wellington.â€¢4:04 p.m. Officers investigated a theft of currency by known subject in the 2000 block E. 16th, Wellington.
The President of the Confederation of African Football (CAF), Ahmad AhmadCairo, Egypt | THE INDEPENDENT | The President of the Confederation of African Football (CAF), Ahmad Ahmad has said the 2019 Total Africa Cup of Nations (AFCON) will be one of the best events in-terms of organization and play on the field.“I am happy with the level of organization that the hosts have put in and we look forward to one of the best tournaments which for the first time will have 24 teams,” Ahmad told URN in a brief interview at the Marriot Hotel in Cairo on Saturday.The 2019 AFCON will run June 21st to July 19th in Cairo, Alexandria, Port Said and Suez. Ahmad made it clear that every football stakeholder needs to play their role well for the tournament to be successful. “We all need to play our part for the development of football in our continent,” added Ahmad. who was questioned by the French Central Office for the Fight against Corruption and Financial and Fiscal Offences (OCLCIEF) in Paris, France on June 6thCameroon who have lifted the AFCON trophy five times are the defending champions, while the hosts who boost of star players like Muhamad Salah who won the UEFA Champions League title with Liverpool have won the title a record seven times. Uganda Cranes will be making their second straight appearance at Africa’s biggest football tournament after they broke the 39-year jinx to appear in the 2017 Edition in Gabon. Kenya, Tanzania and Burundi are the other nations from the Council for East and Central Africa Football Associations (CECAFA) that will feature in the 2019 AFCON.*****URNShare on: WhatsApp
KOLKATA, India (CMC):West Indies arrived here early yesterday from Dubai to begin their final preparations for the Twenty20 World Cup, which is set to bowl off here today with qualifying matches.The 2012 champions spent the last two weeks in a preparation camp in United Arab Emirates (UAE), where they also played four unofficial T20 warm-up games – two against Zimbabwe in Sharjah and two versus English County Warwickshire in Dubai. They won all four fixtures.The Caribbean side play their two official warm-up matches at Eden Gardens, taking on hosts and powerhouses India on Thursday and Australia on Sunday.Bravo in New DelhiMedia reports here said star all-rounder Dwayne Bravo was not with the team at the hotel yesterday, having flown to New Delhi following his arrival from Dubai.However, a team official said the veteran T20 specialist would return in time for the Windies fixtures.”He has some personal commitments in New Delhi. He will return in time,” media reports quoted an unnamed team official as saying.West Indies are also awaiting a replacement for opener Lendl Simmons, who was forced to opt out of the squad last week after failing to recover from a back injury. The Trinidadian played no part in the camp in UAE.In recent weeks, West Indies have been hit by a number of high profile withdrawals from the squad. Kieron Pollard pulled out with injury, off-spinner Sunil Narine chose to complete the rehabilitation of his bowling action, while left-handed batsman Darren Bravo opted to represent Trinidad and Tobago Red Force in the ongoing Regional four-day championship.West Indies have been installed in Group A of the T20 World Cup and will play alongside South Africa, Sri Lanka and England.The winner of Group B in the qualifying tournament beginning today will join West Indies in Group One.
Click HERE if you’re unable to view the gallery on your mobile device.The Oakland Raiders will reportedly play their final season in the same city where it all began for them — San Francisco.In somewhat of a stunner, owner Mark Davis has reached a deal with the Giants to play the 2019 season at Oracle Park (formerly AT&T), NBC Bay Area’s Raj Mathai reported Sunday night.#BREAKING: #Raiders will play in San Francisco for 2019 season. Team reaches deal w/ #SFGiants to use #OraclePark …
Tags:#computers#now A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Family members report that Douglas Engelbart, American inventor and father of the computer mouse, passed away last night at the age of 88. Engelbart made a number of groundbreaking contributions to computing. His pioneering work on human-computer interactions at Stanford Research Institute (now SRI) paved the way for his prototype of the first mouse in 1963. That invention led to the development of a range of modern technologies, including hypertext, networked computers, and precursors to graphical user interfaces. Related Posts He was a dedicated evangelist of computers and their enormous potential for addressing urgent and complex problems, and was just recently featured in an article for The New York Times titled “Who Made That Mouse?”Born in Portland, Ore., as the middle son of three children, Engelbart married his first wife, Ballard, who died in 1997 after 47 years of marriage. He is survived by his second wife, Karen, and his four children. Here’s a video of Engelbart and his colleagues presenting the computer mouse in its public debut in 1968. Engelbart image via Wikipedia; playground mouse image via Flickr user bfishadow, CC 2.0 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… readwrite
Sergio Ramos and Andres Iniesta will be crucial for Spain at the World CupSpain has a surplus of talented players at nearly every position, so picking the right team will likely be Spain coach Vicente del Bosque’s biggest dilemma.The defending champions have been afforded little time to experiment with tough matches against the Netherlands and Chile before facing Australia in Group B.The team’s core is aging but still capable, while an incoming crop of young talent will offer Del Bosque further options.Here are five Spain players to watch:DIEGO COSTADiego Costa brings a new dynamic to the world champions, if coach Vicente del Bosque uses the Atletico Madrid striker correctly.The Brazilian-born Costa has chosen to play for his adopted homeland of Spain, which has not possessed a player with his qualities since it began its trophy-winning ways at the 2008 European Championship.Costa’s gritty, physical play lends better to open space and long balls compared to Spain’s short passing, possession style, with the quick-tempered striker terrorizing defenses when given space to run at them.But the tight confines of Spain’s play could limit Costa’s impact unless Del Bosque embraces his qualities and character, which will be under duress from the home fans for choosing to play for Spain.IKER CASILLASIker Casillas has been relegated to backup goalkeeper at Real Madrid, but the Spain captain has been stellar in that role by leading his club to the Copa del Rey final and deep into the knockout stages of the Champions League.No player has made as many appearances for Spain as Casillas, who will be at his eighth major championship, including four World Cups.XAVI HERNANDEZAt 34, this could surely be Xavi Hernandez’s last World Cup.Spain’s key midfield navigator has spoken about his desire to lead the team in South America, and it is hard to imagine Xavi failing to be one of the difference-makers in the tournament, especially when motivated.Much of Spain’s play is directed off his boot, and much of Spain’s success over the past six years can be attributed to his ability to set the tempo of a match.ANDRES INIESTASpain’s wealth of midfield talent is a key difference-maker for the world champions, and Andres Iniesta is a key cog in that engine.Iniesta, who scored in the 116th minute to give Spain its first World Cup title four years ago, has had a subdued season at Barcelona with occasional flashes of brilliance. But he seems to turn it on for Spain, when he normally proves to be a key player in unlocking defenses that tend to stack the area and stay behind the ball.SERGIO RAMOSOnly 27, Sergio Ramos has already made 115 appearances for the national team. And with Carles Puyol gone, the Real Madrid center back is the natural successor to lead the team from the back.While teammate Gerard Pique may be more attuned to a “sweeper” role of carrying the ball forward, Ramos has been stellar in the center of defense where his speed, size and ability to read the game means he rarely gets beat.While much of the talk of Spain’s success surrounds the midfield, the defense has not conceded a goal in the knockout stages of the past two European Championships and the World Cup – a span of 10 games.
The college football playoff picture would have become much blurrier had Auburn held on to defeat No. 1 Alabama on Saturday. Instead, the Crimson Tide prevailed 55-44. There were some losses to teams ranking behind Alabama — No. 4 Mississippi State, No. 8 UCLA and No. 9 Georgia were all beaten — but they tended to clarify how the teams will line up heading into conference championship weekend. Here’s how FiveThirtyEight’s college football forecast model expects the playoff committee’s rankings might look when they come out on Tuesday evening:The top four seem reasonably clear. Alabama, Oregon and Florida State are likely to remain No. 1 through No. 3 in that order. TCU, No. 5 entering the week, will probably be promoted to No. 4 after demolishing Texas 48-10.Ohio State, No. 6 last week, might give the committee more to think about. Buckeye quarterback J.T. Barrett was injured (and knocked out for the season) late in a win against Michigan. The committee has said it will consider “key injuries that … likely will affect [a team’s] postseason performance.” (The FiveThirtyEight model does not make any assumptions about injuries and so it might overrate Ohio State’s chances of making the playoff.)But the team ranking just behind Ohio State, Baylor, turned in one of the less impressive performances of the week, prevailing over Texas Tech by just 2 points, 48-46. Texas Tech, 4-8 on the season, could have tied the game and probably sent it into overtime with a successful two-point conversion.Michigan State and Arizona, No. 10 and No. 11 entering the weekend, are almost certain to move up in the rankings given the losses ahead of them. But only Arizona has realistic playoff hopes; the Wildcats will face Oregon for the Pac-12 championship after having beaten Arizona State. How far they move up on Tuesday should tell us something about how seriously the committee takes them.Here’s how the FiveThirtyEight model projects the committee’s final rankings on Dec. 7, which will determine the four teams that make the playoff:Even with just one one week to play, the scenarios are reasonably complex. So let’s briefly discuss the playoff from the perspective of the seven teams that are most likely to make it:Alabama (94 percent chance of making playoff). Are the Crimson Tide guaranteed to be in? Not quite. But in addition to catching a few breaks against Auburn, Alabama also benefitted from Missouri winning and advancing to face them in next week’s SEC Championship game. At least according to the computer rankings, Missouri is a weaker opponent than Georgia would have been. And Missouri (No. 17 heading into the weekend) is probably coming from too far behind to leap Alabama in committee standings even with a win in Atlanta. In fact, the model gives Alabama a 67 percent chance of making the playoff even with an SEC Championship loss.Oregon (82 percent chance). Oregon controls its destiny but has less ability to survive a loss in their championship game; the model gives them a 30 percent chance of making the playoff if they lose. That’s, in part, because Oregon’s opponent, Arizona, could plausibly enter the playoff if it wins the Pac-12 championship.TCU (80 percent chance). Although TCU will likely remain behind Florida State in Tuesday’s rankings, the model has them as a safer bet to make the playoff. That’s mainly because TCU’s upcoming matchup is easier. TCU will play a previously-scheduled game against a middling Iowa State team next week (the Big 12 does not host a championship game). Florida State will face a more difficult opponent, Georgia Tech, in the ACC Championship.TCU’s case may be more complicated than the model implies, however, because it lost earlier in the season to Big 12 rival Baylor. But last week’s performance may give the committee a good excuse to ignore the head-to-head result and instead look to factors like results against common opponents like Texas Tech. While Baylor only narrowly escaped Texas Tech, TCU had beaten them 82-27 on Oct. 25.Florida State (70 percent chance). The undefeated Seminoles helped their cause with a win against Florida. But they’re only 65 percent favorites to beat Georgia Tech in the ACC Championship. If the Seminoles lose, they’ll have only a 15 percent chance of making the playoff, according to the model.It didn’t help Florida State that the No. 5 through 7 teams (TCU, Ohio State and Baylor) all won last weekend. The committee isn’t especially fond of the Seminoles, and a loss in the ACC Championship could allow TCU, Ohio State or Baylor to leap frog them.Ohio State (39 percent chance). The model gives Ohio State a 66 percent chance of making the playoff should it beat Wisconsin in the Big Ten championship (and almost no shot if it loses that game). That doesn’t account for the injury to Barrett — although if backup Cardale Jones is good enough to beat the Badgers, that arguably ought to resolve the committee’s questions. Still, this wasn’t a great weekend for Ohio State. In addition to Barrett’s injury, they would have benefited from more chaos ahead of them in the standings. The Buckeyes could beat Wisconsin and still be left out.Baylor (23 percent chance). The Big 12 doesn’t play a championship game, but the Bears, will have the chance to impress the committee as they’ll face a challenging opponent in Kansas State next weekend. Still, it may be wishful thinking to expect Baylor to suddenly leap ahead of TCU or other teams in the rankings. The committee, to the extent it evaluates head-to-head performance, seems to have decided that Baylor’s win against TCU isn’t enough to outweigh what it sees as TCU’s better resume.Arizona (7 percent chance). This sounds like a real long shot, but it’s partly because the model gives Arizona just a 26 percent chance of beating Oregon. Should they win that game, the Wildcats will have a 27 percent chance of making the playoff, according to the model. The Wildcats might need one or two of the teams ranked ahead of them to lose (in addition to Oregon) to feel great about their chances. Overall, Alabama and TCU were helped the most by the past weekend’s action. Alabama’s chance of winning the national championship — not just making the playoff — is up from 26 percent last week to 32 percent. TCU’s chances improved from 9 percent to 15 percent.
Anderson Packers–19491562 ELOEQUIVALENT RECORDTEAM DESCRIPTION Baltimore Bullets–19471419 Fort Wayne PistonsDetroit Pistons19481495 120015-67Historically awful 150041-41Average Sheboygan Red Skins–19491405 There are just a few NBA-specific parameters to set, which we’ll describe below.The K-factorElo’s K-factor determines how quickly the rating reacts to new game results. It should be set so as to efficiently account for new data but not overreact to it. (In a more technical sense, the goal is to minimize autocorrelation.) If K is set too high, the ratings will jump around too much; if it’s set too low, Elo will take too long to recognize important changes in team quality.We found the optimal K for the NBA to be 20. This is higher than we expected; it’s in the same range as the K used for NFL and international soccer Elo ratings even though the NBA plays far more games than those sports. It’s much higher than the optimal K for baseball. It implies that you ought to give relatively high weight to an NBA team’s recent performance.One way to interpret this is that NBA data is subject to relatively little randomness. This makes it different from sports like baseball and hockey, whose game-by-game results are pretty noisy; in those sports, your default assumption should be that a winning or losing streak is mostly luck. That isn’t so true for basketball. Streaks may reflect true, if perhaps temporary, changes in team quality. When the Atlanta Hawks went on a 19-game winning streak this season, for instance, they were undoubtedly getting a little lucky, but they were probably tougher to beat than at other points in the season.There are still some cases in which Elo seems too slow to catch up to reality, like when Michael Jordan left the Bulls or LeBron James left the Cavs. But remember: Elo is only looking at game scores and not the composition of the roster. If that’s all the information you have, setting Elo to react more quickly to these cases would make it overreact to others. The Oklahoma City Thunder’s Elo rating never dipped below 1508 this year despite its 3-12 start, for instance, and that proved to be prudent since the team went 42-25 the rest of the way and ended the year with an Elo rating of 1583.Home-Court AdvantageHome-court advantage is set as equivalent to 100 Elo rating points. One hundred Elo points is equivalent to about 3.5 NBA points,1As for our NFL Elo ratings, it’s possible to translate NBA Elo ratings into point spreads. Here’s the formula: Take the difference of the two teams’ Elo ratings, add 100 points for the home team and then divide by 28. That gives you a projected margin of victory for the game. For instance, in Game 1 of the 2013-14 NBA Finals, the San Antonio Spurs had a 92-point Elo advantage over the Miami Heat, as well as home court, for an overall advantage of 192 Elo points. Dividing that by 28 would make San Antonio roughly 7-point favorites in the game. so that’s like saying the home team would be favored by 3 or 4 points if the teams were otherwise evenly matched.In practice, the magnitude of home-court advantage has waxed and waned over the NBA’s history. Home teams won by an average of 5.8 points in the 1987-88 regular season, for instance, but by just 2.4 points in the past season. And some teams (especially those like Denver and Utah that play at high altitudes) have historically had slightly larger home-court advantages.Still, the spirit of the Elo system is to keep things simple. We experimented with a dynamic home-court advantage rating that changes over time, but we found that it made almost no difference to the overall ratings, partly because each NBA team plays about half its games at home and half on the road. So we’re using the constant 100-point home-court advantage instead.Margin of VictoryElo strikes a nice balance between ratings systems that account for margin of victory and those that don’t. While teams always gain Elo points after wins and lose Elo points after losses, they gain or lose more with larger margins of victory.This works by assigning a multiplier to each game based on the final score and dividing it by a team’s projected margin of victory conditional upon having won the game. For instance, the Warriors’ 4-point margin over the Rockets in Game 1 of this year’s Western Conference finals was lower than Elo would expect for a Warriors win. So the Warriors gain Elo points, but not as many as if they’d won by a larger margin. The formula accounts for diminishing returns; going from a 5-point win to a 10-point win matters more than going from a 25-point win to a 30-point win. For the exact formula, see the footnotes.2The margin of victory multiplier is calculated as follows.Take a team’s margin of victory, add 3 points and then take the result to the power of 0.8.Divide the result by the following formula: 7.5+.006*(elo_diff), where elo_diff represents the Elo rating difference between the teams, accounting for home-court advantage. Elo_diff should be negative in games won by the underdog.For instance, in Game 1 of the Warriors-Rockets series, the Warriors entered the game with a an Elo rating 118 points higher than the Rockets’ and had home-court advantage, for an elo_diff of +218. They wound up winning the game by 4 points. Thus, their margin of victory multiplier is calculated as follows:What if the Rockets had won by 4 points instead? Since they were underdogs, they’d get a larger multiplier:While this formula may seem clunky, it accounts for the fact that favorites tend to win games by larger margins than they lose them. Failing to correct for this will introduce autocorrelation into the system and make the ratings less stable. See here for further discussion.Year-to-Year Carry-OverInstead of resetting each team’s rating when a new season begins, Elo carries over a portion of a team’s rating from one season to the next. In our NFL Elo ratings, teams retain two-thirds of their rating from the end of the previous season. In our NBA ratings, by contrast, they keep three-quarters of it. The higher fraction reflects the fact that NBA teams are more consistent from year to year than NFL squads.For example, the Miami Heat ended the 2012-13 NBA season with an Elo rating of 1754. The team’s Elo rating for the start of the 2013-14 season is calculated as follows:(.75 * 1754) + (.25 * 1505) = 1692Detail-oriented readers may see something that seems amiss here. Each team’s Elo rating is reverted to the mean, and — as we’ve said — the long-term mean Elo rating is 1500. So why does a slightly different number, 1505, appear in the formula?Expansion, Contraction and MergersThe reason has to do with the way we handle expansion teams. In principle, the implementation of this is pretty simple. Each franchise begins with an Elo rating of 1300 in its inaugural professional season. The reason we revert to a mean of 1505 rather than 1500 is that there are liable to be a couple of relatively recent expansion teams in the league at any given time. Giving established teams a rating very slightly higher than 1500 counteracts the expansion teams and keeps the league average Elo close to 1500 over the long run.But the league average Elo rating will be slightly different from 1500 in any given season, depending on how recently the league has expanded. It was 1504.5 during the 2014-15 NBA season, for instance, slightly higher than the long-term average because the NBA hasn’t expanded much recently.The league average tended to fluctuate more in the early years of the NBA because of constant expansion, contraction and mergers with other leagues. (We’ve learned way more than we wanted to know about the early history of American professional basketball, like that you could have once watched a game between teams named the Indianapolis Kautskys and the Akron Firestone Non-Skids.) The league average reached a peak of 1534.5 in 1954-55 after a number of losing teams had disbanded. By contrast, it was just 1440.5 in the 1970-71 season after the NBA expanded rapidly.There’s one other tricky part. We said a team begins with a rating of 1300 in its first professional season. That doesn’t mean its first NBA season. Instead, teams get credit for their performance in predecessor leagues that merged with the NBA:The Basketball Association of America (BAA), which began play in 1946-47, is usually considered the official predecessor of the NBA. So we track all BAA teams’ Elo ratings explicitly, starting them at 1300 in 1946-47.We also track American Basketball Association (ABA) Elo ratings explicitly — yes, that includes The Floridians! — starting them at a rating of 1300 in the ABA’s inaugural season of 1967-68. The year-end adjustment takes care of the rest, allowing the ABA’s performance to gradually improve over time. The four ABA teams that joined the NBA in 1976-77 simply carry over their ratings from ABA. Because these teams — the Indiana Pacers, San Antonio Spurs, Denver Nuggets and New York Nets — had been among the more successful ABA franchises, Elo ratings imply that the merger with the ABA did not weaken the NBA much. The four ABA imports averaged a respectable 40-42 record in their first three NBA seasons, in fact.The National Basketball League (NBL) was a competing professional basketball league that began play in 1937-38 and included colorfully named franchises like the Non-Skids. It merged into the BAA in advance of the 1949-50 season, at which point the combined league was renamed the NBA. In fact, most of the better franchises in the early days of the NBA originated in the NBL rather than the BAA, including the Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals and Fort Wayne Pistons. While we could not track down game-by-game results for the NBL, we inferred Elo ratings for NBL teams based on the season standings and playoff results, and these ratings carry over when teams enter the NBA. For instance, the Syracuse Nationals (now the Philadelphia 76ers) begin with a rating of 1458 in their first NBA season in 1949-50.Finally, one early NBA team, the Baltimore Bullets, originated in a third early league, the American Basketball League (ABL). Confusingly, that original version of the Baltimore Bullets bears no relationship with the team that would later play as the Baltimore Bullets from 1963 to 1973 (and which is now known as the Washington Wizards). However, Elo gives the original Baltimore Bullets credit for the seasons they played in the ABL.3Since data on the ABL is very hard to come by, the Bullets’ initial rating is simply calculated by starting them with a rating of 1300 and then reverting them toward the mean of 1505 for each season they played in that league. You can find the starting Elo ratings for the Bullets and NBL teams below: 180067-15All-time great 130022-60LOL 140031-51In the lottery Rochester RoyalsSacramento Kings19481535 Minneapolis LakersLos Angeles Lakers19481527 Waterloo Hawks–19491382 Tri-Cities BlackhawksAtlanta Hawks19491430 Teams retain their prior Elo ratings when they change cities or nicknames. This includes the teams now known as the New Orleans Pelicans and Charlotte Hornets. The NBA, in a bit of revisionist history, considers the current Charlotte Hornets (who were known as the Charlotte Bobcats until this season) to “own” the statistics of the team that played as the Charlotte Hornets from 1988-89 through 2001-02, before they moved to New Orleans. We instead link those Hornets seasons with the New Orleans Hornets, who are now the New Orleans Pelicans. Denver Nuggets–19491295 Syracuse NationalsPhiladelphia 76ers19491458 160051-31Playoff bound Hopefully if you’re reading this, you’ve had a chance to explore our new interactive graphic, “The Complete History Of The NBA,” which tracks each NBA and ABA franchise’s performance through every game of its history.So now for the exciting part: 2,000 words about autocorrelation and the Akron Firestone Non-Skids.Actually, this won’t be too bad because Elo is a pretty simple formula. The guts of the system are the same as we used for the NFL and which other researchers have applied to competitions ranging from chess to soccer. For those new to Elo, here are its essential features:The ratings depend only on the final score of each game and where it was played (home-court advantage). They include both regular-season and playoff games. The principal source for game-by-game scores is Basketball-Reference.com.Teams always gain Elo points after winning games and lose ground after losing them. They gain more points for upset wins and for winning by wider margins.The system is zero-sum. When the Denver Nuggets gained 30 Elo points by upsetting the No. 1 seed Seattle SuperSonics in the first round of the 1994 NBA playoffs, the Sonics lost 30 points.Ratings are established on a game-by-game rather than a season-by-season basis. So you can see changes in a team’s “form” over the course of the year: The Toronto Raptors had a much higher rating early in the 2014-15 season than at the end of it, while the reverse has been true for the Cleveland Cavaliers.The long-term average Elo rating is 1500, although it can vary slightly in any particular year based on how recently the league has expanded (more about that below). More than 90 percent of team ratings are between 1300 (pretty awful) and 1700 (really good), but historically great or truly execrable teams can fall outside that range: Indianapolis Jets–19481366 170060-22Title contender NBL/ABL TEAMCURRENT FRANCHISEFIRST YEAR IN NBA/BAASTARTING ELO
Fresh towels, pillows and blankets are available upon request for a small fee. The system currently extends across 3,500 miles of scenic coastline with ten ferries providing service to over 35 coastal communities. The AMHS summer schedule covers ferry travel from May through September 2018 on the only marine route recognized as a National Scenic Byway and All-American Road. Story as aired:http://www.radiokenai.us/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Dorene-on-Booking-begins-for-summer-ferries.mp3 Courtesy of Alaska Marine Highway SystemThe Kennicott is 382 feet long and 85 feet wide, with a service speed of almost 17 knots. Reservations are available for booking at FerryAlaska.com, by calling 1-800-642-0066, or visiting ferry terminal staff throughout the system. The ship has 48 four-berth and 58 two-berth cabins which offer offer sink areas and linens. Onboard amenities include observation lounges with comfortable chairs, a covered heated solarium, a cafeteria-style restaurant, a movie lounge, showers, coin-operated lockers, writing and quiet lounges, and a child’s play area. She is designed to carry around 500 passengers and can carry 70 some vehicles. FacebookTwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享For those who are wanting to secure a seat aboard the poor man’s cruise ship, the Alaska Marine Highway System Summer 2018 Schedule is now open for booking. The M/V Kennicott runs from Homer to Bellingham, Washington with stops in Seldovia, Kodiak, Chenega Bay, Whittier, Yakutat, Juneau, and Ketchikan. For around a thousand dollars you can take the whole trip.