WW photo: Brenda RyanA standing-room-only crowd attended an evening of “Love and Resistance for Imam Jamil Al-Amin” at the 1199 SEIU auditorium in Manhattan, N.Y., Sept. 12. Al-Amin, formerly known as H. Rap Brown — a political prisoner falsely convicted of murder in Georgia — is in grave medical condition in a prison hospital in North Carolina. Speakers urged the crowd to build a campaign to ensure that he is not returned to maximum solitary confinement when he is released from the hospital. For more information, go to freemumia.com.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this
RelatedPosts Italy introduces compulsory virus testing for travellers from France Nigeria records new COVID-19 infections, more deaths as figures rise to 57,242 I was in best of forms before Tokyo Paralympics was postponed — Powerlifter Ejike Manny Pacquiao said he has tested negative for Coronavirus Disease after the eight-weight boxing world champion and Philippines senator came into contact with a politician who had contracted the disease. The 41-year-old, who holds the WBA welterweight world title, was recently pictured with Senate President Aquilino ‘Koko’ Pimental, who subsequently tested positive for COVID-19. In a statement, Pacquiao said he was already in quarantine and had used an unapproved rapid testing kit from South Korea to determine if he had been infected. However, he added that if he or his family exhibits any symptom, he will not hesitate to undergo swab testing. “My countrymen, I would like to make it clear that even before I received the letter from [Dasmarinas Village, Makati] Barangay Captain Rossana Hwang, I already started home quarantine,” Pacquiao said. “Please don’t worry. I received rapid testing kits from my friends from South Korea. Using these kits approved in Korea, I tested negative. The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] hasn’t approved them yet but these are what’s used in Korea. “I’ve been encouraged a while back to get tested at RITM [Research Institute for Tropical Medicine], but I want to let it be known that I have not felt any symptoms. “It’s an entirely different conversation when I’m feeling something strange in my body. I am willing to undergo swab testing for the sake of my family and my country, but I will go through the regular procedure. “I believe that there are many more persons under investigation or PUI that should be prioritised in testing.” The news comes after Pacquiao claimed he “was not afraid to die” to help those affected by the disease in the Philippines. “If you are a leader, you have to be a frontliner,” Pacquiao said. “You have to lead and let people see that you are with them. I grew up poor. I know what they feel.” There have been 1,418 cases of coronavirus reported so far in the Philippines, with 71 casualties.Tags: Aquilino PimentalCoronavirusManny PacquiaoRossana Hwang
Cristiano RonaldoMadrid, Spain | AFP | Cristiano Ronaldo was hit with a five-match ban by the Spanish football federation (RFEF) on Monday for pushing the referee after being sent off in Real Madrid’s 3-1 Spanish Super Cup, first leg win over Barcelona.The World Player of the Year received an automatic one-match ban for his dismissal on Sunday and an extra four games for his reaction towards referee Ricardo de Burgos Bengoetxea.Ronaldo was also fined 3,805 euros ($4,500) and has 10 days to appeal the ban.Should any appeal fail, Ronaldo will miss Wednesday’s Super Cup, second leg and Madrid’s first four La Liga games of the season against Deportivo la Coruna, Valencia, Levante and Real Sociedad.However, Ronaldo will be free to feature when Madrid start their defence of the Champions League on September 12 or 13.Madrid had already signalled their intent to appeal Ronaldo’s second yellow card shown for diving eight minutes from time when he went down inside the area under pressure from Samuel Umtiti.“Ronaldo’s sending-off annoys me because even if it is not a penalty, the card is harsh,” said Madrid boss Zinedine Zidane after the game. “We will see if we can do something so that he is available on Wednesday.”Ronaldo was only on the field for 24 minutes after he was introduced as a second-half substitute and fired into the top corner 10 minutes from time to give Madrid a 2-1 lead.He received his first yellow card for removing his shirt in celebration before being shown the 10th red card of his career two minutes later.“Once shown the red card, said player (Ronaldo) pushed me lightly as a sign of his disapproval,” De Burgos Bengoetxea wrote in his referee’s report.According to the RFEF’s rules, such offences are met with a suspension of anything between four and 12 games, but previous cases also resulted in four-game bans.Share on: WhatsApp Pages: 1 2
“Developing our work in this area is a priority for the Premier League.”Sterling and several of his England team-mates endured racist chanting during a Euro 2020 qualifier in Montenegro in March.He was also allegedly abused by Chelsea fans in December and, speaking at the event, he said strong punishments are needed in order for the campaign to have a real impact.“Teams getting (points) deductions, teams getting kicked out. This is when people start taking it seriously,” he said.“If I go to a football game and I support Manchester United, for example, I don’t want to be the person that lets my team down by saying silly remarks in a stadium.“If you know your team is going to get deducted nine points and not win the league, you are not going to say these racist remarks even though you shouldn’t have it in your head.”Share on: WhatsApp FILE PHOTO: Raheem SterlingLondon, United Kingdom | AFP | The Premier League has welcomed Raheem Sterling’s offer to help in the fight against racism after the Manchester City star called on the sport’s authorities to do more to tackle the problem.Sterling told the Wall Street Journal’s Future of Everything Festival in New York this week that football’s current attempts to stamp out racism are not effective enough.The 24-year-old wants the introduction of stronger punishments when incidents occur, suggesting clubs whose fans are guilty of racism should be hit with points deductions.Sterling, who has emerged as a key voice in the campaign against racism, is keen to speak to the Football Association and Premier League to discuss his ideas.Premier League chiefs have responded by confirming they are ready to talk to the England winger and any other players with thoughts on the issue.“The Premier League and our clubs agree that while good work has been undertaken, more needs to be done to promote inclusion and diversity across football and to ensure BAME fans and players are supported,” a Premier League statement said on Thursday.“Raheem took part in our No Room for Racism campaign and we would welcome the opportunity to talk to him, and other players, about discrimination in football.
Renney had also been courted by the San Jose Sharks of the NHL but signed a three-year deal with Detroit.The Red Wings had a spot open on their staff when Jeff Blashill was named head coach of their American Hockey League affiliate, the Grand Rapids Griffins.Before arriving in Edmonton, the 57-year-old Cranbrook native was let go from the Rangers in February 2009 after 61 games, following three full seasons and 20 games in another when he took over from Glen Sather, who remained as general manager.Renney was also release from Vancouver in 1997-98 after his first full season with the club.Renney got his start in hockey in the KIJHL. He won the league championship as skipper of the Columbia Valley Rockies before moving to coaching in the Western Hockey League and winning a Memorial Cup with Kamloops Blazers.In two season with the Blazers Renney compiled a 101-37-6 record for a .714 winning percentage, which ranks as the all-time highest winning mark in CHL history.Before coaching in the NHL, Renney guided Canada to a silver medal at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway.Renney and wife Glenda own a summer home near Nelson on the North Shore overlooking Kootenay Lake. It’s didn’t take former Kootenay International Junior Hockey League coach Tom Renney to find a job back in the pros.The Columbia Valley Rockies skipper, who took the one proud franchise to a KIJHL title, accepted an offer earlier this week with the Detroit Red Wings as associate coach.Renney fell out of favour with his last team, Edmonton Oilers, which elected not to re-sign the coach after his third season with the NHL club.Instead, the Oilers decided to go with Renney’s right-hand man, Ralph Krueger, into the head coaching post.Ironically it was Renney who cohersed Krueger to join the Oilers from Europe.
Attacking approachIn Perth, the Boks’ only try began with a high-up-and-under, which was won by Kirchner, thanks really to the bounce of the ball. Springbok fans want to see more than that. Ball winnerAlso, with Bismarck du Plessis sidelined after being injured against Argentina in Cape Town, the Springboks lost a valuable ball winner in the loose, and the decision to go for a very big loose trio in Perth, without including a true ball winner, proved questionable. Australia’s Michael Hooper, the smallest loose forward on the field in Perth, effected four turnovers. It’s not often that a team manages to come back from 10 points down as the Australians did to beat South Africa, so hats off to them, but the fact that they did that is what makes it so disappointing from a South African perspective, along with the manner in which the Boks played the game. Game planBy sticking to a game plan that brought the Bulls three Super Rugby titles, Meyer’s Springboks have found it far harder to break down the opposition at international level. The tactical kicking game that was previously spearheaded by scrumhalf Fourie du Preez now looks old and tired, and it appears that the Bok backline has little to offer in the way of innovation and excitement. Playing within themselvesIt seems, in many ways, that a clash of styles, brought from the various franchises, is limiting the Boks. They’re playing within themselves and the result is that some established international players who shone in the Super Rugby tournament now appear to be mere shadows of themselves. Patrick LambieIf one is to criticise Meyer, Lambie is an ideal example to do so. He stood out at fullback on the biggest stage of all in 2011, the Rugby World Cup. However, he was played at flyhalf early in the year by the Sharks before being moved back to fullback. Meyer, though, has opted for the steady, but unspectacular Bulls’ number 15, Zane Kirchner, ahead of the undoubtedly more talented Lambie. A first defeat for the Springboks under Heynecke Meyer felt inevitable after three iffy performances in succession, but it was nonetheless disappointing as the Boks gave up a halftime lead before going down 26-19 to the Wallabies in a Castle Rugby Championship match in Perth on Saturday. A good all-round gameThe best rugby they have played in recent times came during the 2007 Rugby World Cup; they combined an uncompromising defence with razor-sharp counter-attacking. They did the basics well and the general at number 10 was not a kicking flyhalf, but Butch James, a man with a good all-round game. There must be a lesson to be learnt from that. In Meyer’s six tests in charge of the Springboks, it should be remembered that the South Africa team looked at its best in the first half of the team’s 36-27 victory over England in the second test in Johannesburg in June. In that first half, the basics were performed well. They played well with the ball in hand, aiming to get it wide, and were rewarded. So, the question is: why has the ambition of the Springboks’ play receded so much since then, or appeared to do so? Is it time to recall Heinrich Brussouw? In 2011, before being injured, he was lauded for his influence on the game. Now he is on the outside looking in. This much is true: he looked very good for the Cheetahs in their narrow loss to Western Province on the weekend. Granted, test rugby is a different animal, more tightly contested than any other games, but isn’t that where subtle skills make all the difference? Shouldn’t we believe the Springboks are capable of more than they’re showing? And another question about the Springboks’ loose forwards: was Keegan Daniel let go too soon? Yes, he is smaller than the South African ideal of what a flanker or eighthman should look like, but his skills are unmatched among loose forwards in the country. He is one of the reasons why the Sharks are able to play such a good and effective counter-attacking style of rugby. Lots of questions, I know, but that’s where the Springboks’ performances leave us, the fans, at present – with more questions than answers. While Kirchner has not let the Boks down, his ceiling is much lower than that of Lambie, who came off the bench for the first time in three games on Saturday. To match up to teams like the world champion All Blacks, who are South Africa’s next opponents by the way, the Springboks need their most talented players on the park. It didn’t really work for the Bulls in this year’s Super Rugby competition; they finished sixth on the log and were beaten in their first playoff game. The Stormers topped the log with a defensive-minded approach, but they never once earned a bonus point for scoring four tries in a game and that defensive approach it was found wanting by the Sharks in the playoffs. One of the scapegoats for South Africa’s poor performances has been flyhalf Morne Steyn, especially as his goal kicking has been below his usually immaculate standard. He offers less than Patrick Lambie on the attack, with Lambie good at taking the ball flat, while rising star Johan Goosen is as talented a player as anyone in the game, but he has only recently returned from a long injury layoff. The most inventive and attacking of the South African franchises, the Sharks made it to the final. Their style of play, more integrated than that of the other South African franchises, matched up best to the challenge of Australian and New Zealand opposition when the chips were down. 10 September 2012 A man like Kirchner won’t let the team down, but he is not a potential difference maker and match winner like Lambie is. And that is what is needed against the best opposition. When Goosen is fit, let him loose at flyhalf. Where they stood out most was in their ability to offload in the tackle and keep attacking movements alive. It’s something that has been relatively scarce in the Springboks’ approach. They want to see the ball run, especially as South African conditions are so conducive to it. They want to see the physicality of the players used not only to try and run over the opposition, but also around them, or to slice through them. Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material
In recent weeks a package of the 2006 NTL Mens, Womens and Mixed Open was shown on Fox TV. This was a great step forward for Touch as we have been off the main-stream television screens for quite a number of years.TFA would like to thank all of the state offices, who contributed financially to assist TFA in producing the package and having it shown. To date, the feedback has been extremely positive, with Touch fans Australia-wide complimenting the footage that was shown, as well as the clips introducing the sport and basic elements of the game. The success of the package was a credit to all of the staff, team management and players, who worked hard to ensure the sport was shown in a professional light. There was certainly no shortage of highlights for the package, with the Sydney Mets Mixed side putting on a touchdown show, the Womens Open final between the Mets and Sharks proving a very tight affair and the Mens Open final giving us one of the best NTL finals to date.(The Garry Sonda through-the-legs special was definitely one for the highlights reel!)With FOX Sports being available in around 1.75 million homes and over 6,000 commercial venues, the potential of the showing to increase awareness and knowledge of the sport is huge.Following on from the success of the showing in Australia, the package was also picked up by ABC Asia Pacific, who will be showing the package in up to 50-60 Asia Pacific nations in coming weeks. The package has already been shown in Hong Kong and here is a list of countries that may view the NTL Touch Football package in the future:Cook IslandsFijiFrench PolynesiaGuamSamoaKiribatiSolomon IslandsNauruNew CaledoniaNiueMarianasPalauPapua New GuineaTahitiTokelauTongaTuvaluVanuatuWallis and FutunaAfghanistanArmeniaAzerbaijanBangladeshBhutanBruneiCambodiaPeoples Republic of ChinaEast TimorFederated States of MicronesiaHong KongIndia IndonesiaKazakhstanLaosNepalSri-LankaTibetTurkmenistanUzbekistanJapanMacauMalaysiaMongoliaMyanmar (Burma) North KoreaPakistanPhilippinesSingaporeSouth KoreaRepublic of China (Taiwan)ThailandVietnam.TFA will be selling copies of the 2006 NTL package on DVD in the coming weeks, so if you missed out on seeing the package or want to see it again, keep an eye on the TFA website for when they’re available and for how to place your order.
Huskies – Fill a bus, was more successful than the year previousSafeway – Donated four tons of foodFSJ Senior Flyers – Teddy Bear Toss, received a couple hundred bearsCentury 21 – Toy Drive, saw the most toys this year and sponsored 21 hampers (Independently purchased the food, gift cards and toys. $165 value per hamper)ATCO Two Rivers Camp – Donated $2500 purchased food from the Wholesale ClubDoig First Nations – Donated $2500Giant Power Tong – Donated 100 TurkeysButcher Block – Donated 150 HamsC&V Trailer Rentals – Donated the use of a Trailer to pick up the donations“With every added donation we are able to help more people,” said Cameron Eggie, Executive Director for the Salvation Army. “Big efforts have been put forth by a lot of people to make this all happen.”The Red Kettle Campaign continues and spaces are still available to volunteer.If you are interested in Volunteering for the Red Kettle Campaign call the Volunteer Coordinator Tatiana (250) 261-1933Salvation Army FB Page CLICK HEREFor more information on the Red Kettle Campaign CLICK HERE FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – The Salvation Army has been building their 165 Christmas Hampers that they could not have done without the generous help of this Community.In the past month, several organizations and businesses have come together to help provide food and gifts to create a successful Christmas Hamper Campaign.Some of the community support has been received through;
Colombo: Sri Lanka’s Catholic churches on Thursday suspended all public services until the security situation improves as the head of the church urged politicians to leave aside differences to rebuild the country struck by the Easter Sunday bombings that killed nearly 360 people. Cardinal Malcolm Ranjith, the head of the local Catholic church, said that Easter Sunday’s attacks were coordinated by an organised group with powerful nations behind them and also noted that these attackers had no religion. Also Read – Saudi Crown Prince ‘snubbed’ Pak PM, recalled jet from USAll Catholic churches were asked to stop public mass until the security situation improves, Cardinal Ranjith’s office quoted him as saying. “There will be no public mass said until further notice,” an official said. He urged the government to leave aside all political differences and work together at this time to rebuild the country again. Sri Lankan media and some ministers have criticised the rift between President Maithripala Sirisena and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe after it emerged that authorities had prior intelligence from India and the US about the possible attacks by the National Tawheed Jamath (NTJ) jihadist group.
Anderson Packers–19491562 ELOEQUIVALENT RECORDTEAM DESCRIPTION Baltimore Bullets–19471419 Fort Wayne PistonsDetroit Pistons19481495 120015-67Historically awful 150041-41Average Sheboygan Red Skins–19491405 There are just a few NBA-specific parameters to set, which we’ll describe below.The K-factorElo’s K-factor determines how quickly the rating reacts to new game results. It should be set so as to efficiently account for new data but not overreact to it. (In a more technical sense, the goal is to minimize autocorrelation.) If K is set too high, the ratings will jump around too much; if it’s set too low, Elo will take too long to recognize important changes in team quality.We found the optimal K for the NBA to be 20. This is higher than we expected; it’s in the same range as the K used for NFL and international soccer Elo ratings even though the NBA plays far more games than those sports. It’s much higher than the optimal K for baseball. It implies that you ought to give relatively high weight to an NBA team’s recent performance.One way to interpret this is that NBA data is subject to relatively little randomness. This makes it different from sports like baseball and hockey, whose game-by-game results are pretty noisy; in those sports, your default assumption should be that a winning or losing streak is mostly luck. That isn’t so true for basketball. Streaks may reflect true, if perhaps temporary, changes in team quality. When the Atlanta Hawks went on a 19-game winning streak this season, for instance, they were undoubtedly getting a little lucky, but they were probably tougher to beat than at other points in the season.There are still some cases in which Elo seems too slow to catch up to reality, like when Michael Jordan left the Bulls or LeBron James left the Cavs. But remember: Elo is only looking at game scores and not the composition of the roster. If that’s all the information you have, setting Elo to react more quickly to these cases would make it overreact to others. The Oklahoma City Thunder’s Elo rating never dipped below 1508 this year despite its 3-12 start, for instance, and that proved to be prudent since the team went 42-25 the rest of the way and ended the year with an Elo rating of 1583.Home-Court AdvantageHome-court advantage is set as equivalent to 100 Elo rating points. One hundred Elo points is equivalent to about 3.5 NBA points,1As for our NFL Elo ratings, it’s possible to translate NBA Elo ratings into point spreads. Here’s the formula: Take the difference of the two teams’ Elo ratings, add 100 points for the home team and then divide by 28. That gives you a projected margin of victory for the game. For instance, in Game 1 of the 2013-14 NBA Finals, the San Antonio Spurs had a 92-point Elo advantage over the Miami Heat, as well as home court, for an overall advantage of 192 Elo points. Dividing that by 28 would make San Antonio roughly 7-point favorites in the game. so that’s like saying the home team would be favored by 3 or 4 points if the teams were otherwise evenly matched.In practice, the magnitude of home-court advantage has waxed and waned over the NBA’s history. Home teams won by an average of 5.8 points in the 1987-88 regular season, for instance, but by just 2.4 points in the past season. And some teams (especially those like Denver and Utah that play at high altitudes) have historically had slightly larger home-court advantages.Still, the spirit of the Elo system is to keep things simple. We experimented with a dynamic home-court advantage rating that changes over time, but we found that it made almost no difference to the overall ratings, partly because each NBA team plays about half its games at home and half on the road. So we’re using the constant 100-point home-court advantage instead.Margin of VictoryElo strikes a nice balance between ratings systems that account for margin of victory and those that don’t. While teams always gain Elo points after wins and lose Elo points after losses, they gain or lose more with larger margins of victory.This works by assigning a multiplier to each game based on the final score and dividing it by a team’s projected margin of victory conditional upon having won the game. For instance, the Warriors’ 4-point margin over the Rockets in Game 1 of this year’s Western Conference finals was lower than Elo would expect for a Warriors win. So the Warriors gain Elo points, but not as many as if they’d won by a larger margin. The formula accounts for diminishing returns; going from a 5-point win to a 10-point win matters more than going from a 25-point win to a 30-point win. For the exact formula, see the footnotes.2The margin of victory multiplier is calculated as follows.Take a team’s margin of victory, add 3 points and then take the result to the power of 0.8.Divide the result by the following formula: 7.5+.006*(elo_diff), where elo_diff represents the Elo rating difference between the teams, accounting for home-court advantage. Elo_diff should be negative in games won by the underdog.For instance, in Game 1 of the Warriors-Rockets series, the Warriors entered the game with a an Elo rating 118 points higher than the Rockets’ and had home-court advantage, for an elo_diff of +218. They wound up winning the game by 4 points. Thus, their margin of victory multiplier is calculated as follows:What if the Rockets had won by 4 points instead? Since they were underdogs, they’d get a larger multiplier:While this formula may seem clunky, it accounts for the fact that favorites tend to win games by larger margins than they lose them. Failing to correct for this will introduce autocorrelation into the system and make the ratings less stable. See here for further discussion.Year-to-Year Carry-OverInstead of resetting each team’s rating when a new season begins, Elo carries over a portion of a team’s rating from one season to the next. In our NFL Elo ratings, teams retain two-thirds of their rating from the end of the previous season. In our NBA ratings, by contrast, they keep three-quarters of it. The higher fraction reflects the fact that NBA teams are more consistent from year to year than NFL squads.For example, the Miami Heat ended the 2012-13 NBA season with an Elo rating of 1754. The team’s Elo rating for the start of the 2013-14 season is calculated as follows:(.75 * 1754) + (.25 * 1505) = 1692Detail-oriented readers may see something that seems amiss here. Each team’s Elo rating is reverted to the mean, and — as we’ve said — the long-term mean Elo rating is 1500. So why does a slightly different number, 1505, appear in the formula?Expansion, Contraction and MergersThe reason has to do with the way we handle expansion teams. In principle, the implementation of this is pretty simple. Each franchise begins with an Elo rating of 1300 in its inaugural professional season. The reason we revert to a mean of 1505 rather than 1500 is that there are liable to be a couple of relatively recent expansion teams in the league at any given time. Giving established teams a rating very slightly higher than 1500 counteracts the expansion teams and keeps the league average Elo close to 1500 over the long run.But the league average Elo rating will be slightly different from 1500 in any given season, depending on how recently the league has expanded. It was 1504.5 during the 2014-15 NBA season, for instance, slightly higher than the long-term average because the NBA hasn’t expanded much recently.The league average tended to fluctuate more in the early years of the NBA because of constant expansion, contraction and mergers with other leagues. (We’ve learned way more than we wanted to know about the early history of American professional basketball, like that you could have once watched a game between teams named the Indianapolis Kautskys and the Akron Firestone Non-Skids.) The league average reached a peak of 1534.5 in 1954-55 after a number of losing teams had disbanded. By contrast, it was just 1440.5 in the 1970-71 season after the NBA expanded rapidly.There’s one other tricky part. We said a team begins with a rating of 1300 in its first professional season. That doesn’t mean its first NBA season. Instead, teams get credit for their performance in predecessor leagues that merged with the NBA:The Basketball Association of America (BAA), which began play in 1946-47, is usually considered the official predecessor of the NBA. So we track all BAA teams’ Elo ratings explicitly, starting them at 1300 in 1946-47.We also track American Basketball Association (ABA) Elo ratings explicitly — yes, that includes The Floridians! — starting them at a rating of 1300 in the ABA’s inaugural season of 1967-68. The year-end adjustment takes care of the rest, allowing the ABA’s performance to gradually improve over time. The four ABA teams that joined the NBA in 1976-77 simply carry over their ratings from ABA. Because these teams — the Indiana Pacers, San Antonio Spurs, Denver Nuggets and New York Nets — had been among the more successful ABA franchises, Elo ratings imply that the merger with the ABA did not weaken the NBA much. The four ABA imports averaged a respectable 40-42 record in their first three NBA seasons, in fact.The National Basketball League (NBL) was a competing professional basketball league that began play in 1937-38 and included colorfully named franchises like the Non-Skids. It merged into the BAA in advance of the 1949-50 season, at which point the combined league was renamed the NBA. In fact, most of the better franchises in the early days of the NBA originated in the NBL rather than the BAA, including the Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals and Fort Wayne Pistons. While we could not track down game-by-game results for the NBL, we inferred Elo ratings for NBL teams based on the season standings and playoff results, and these ratings carry over when teams enter the NBA. For instance, the Syracuse Nationals (now the Philadelphia 76ers) begin with a rating of 1458 in their first NBA season in 1949-50.Finally, one early NBA team, the Baltimore Bullets, originated in a third early league, the American Basketball League (ABL). Confusingly, that original version of the Baltimore Bullets bears no relationship with the team that would later play as the Baltimore Bullets from 1963 to 1973 (and which is now known as the Washington Wizards). However, Elo gives the original Baltimore Bullets credit for the seasons they played in the ABL.3Since data on the ABL is very hard to come by, the Bullets’ initial rating is simply calculated by starting them with a rating of 1300 and then reverting them toward the mean of 1505 for each season they played in that league. You can find the starting Elo ratings for the Bullets and NBL teams below: 180067-15All-time great 130022-60LOL 140031-51In the lottery Rochester RoyalsSacramento Kings19481535 Minneapolis LakersLos Angeles Lakers19481527 Waterloo Hawks–19491382 Tri-Cities BlackhawksAtlanta Hawks19491430 Teams retain their prior Elo ratings when they change cities or nicknames. This includes the teams now known as the New Orleans Pelicans and Charlotte Hornets. The NBA, in a bit of revisionist history, considers the current Charlotte Hornets (who were known as the Charlotte Bobcats until this season) to “own” the statistics of the team that played as the Charlotte Hornets from 1988-89 through 2001-02, before they moved to New Orleans. We instead link those Hornets seasons with the New Orleans Hornets, who are now the New Orleans Pelicans. Denver Nuggets–19491295 Syracuse NationalsPhiladelphia 76ers19491458 160051-31Playoff bound Hopefully if you’re reading this, you’ve had a chance to explore our new interactive graphic, “The Complete History Of The NBA,” which tracks each NBA and ABA franchise’s performance through every game of its history.So now for the exciting part: 2,000 words about autocorrelation and the Akron Firestone Non-Skids.Actually, this won’t be too bad because Elo is a pretty simple formula. The guts of the system are the same as we used for the NFL and which other researchers have applied to competitions ranging from chess to soccer. For those new to Elo, here are its essential features:The ratings depend only on the final score of each game and where it was played (home-court advantage). They include both regular-season and playoff games. The principal source for game-by-game scores is Basketball-Reference.com.Teams always gain Elo points after winning games and lose ground after losing them. They gain more points for upset wins and for winning by wider margins.The system is zero-sum. When the Denver Nuggets gained 30 Elo points by upsetting the No. 1 seed Seattle SuperSonics in the first round of the 1994 NBA playoffs, the Sonics lost 30 points.Ratings are established on a game-by-game rather than a season-by-season basis. So you can see changes in a team’s “form” over the course of the year: The Toronto Raptors had a much higher rating early in the 2014-15 season than at the end of it, while the reverse has been true for the Cleveland Cavaliers.The long-term average Elo rating is 1500, although it can vary slightly in any particular year based on how recently the league has expanded (more about that below). More than 90 percent of team ratings are between 1300 (pretty awful) and 1700 (really good), but historically great or truly execrable teams can fall outside that range: Indianapolis Jets–19481366 170060-22Title contender NBL/ABL TEAMCURRENT FRANCHISEFIRST YEAR IN NBA/BAASTARTING ELO